Have you ever lost, forgotten to return or accidentally damaged a library book? If so, you may have been asked to pay a fee to replace or repair the book â€” but you still got away easy! During the Middle Ages, the fate of both your body and soul could have been at serious risk. Medieval librarians often added curses to their books upon those who did not return or damaged borrowed books, or stole them from their libraries. These curses usually invoked God, suggesting that these punishments would be made effective with divine authority.
The sort of fate medieval librarians wished on book thieves: detail of a miniature illustrating Gregory's Homily 40, of a man with two demons in Hell, from Les Omelies Saint GrÃ©goire pape, Low Countries (Bruges), 2nd half of the 15th century, Royal MS 15 D V, f. 107v
Some book curses guaranteed an immediate, physical punishment. The British Library has recently digitised a Middle Dutch natural encyclopaedia and bestiary (Add MS 11390) that contains a â€˜dear oathâ€™ (â€˜dieren eetâ€™) below an image of a cross, with which the borrower had to swear that he or she would return the book or die. At least one borrower, a woman who identified herself as a midwife (â€˜Abstetrix heifmoederâ€™), dared to subscribe to this oath.
The â€˜dear (or dire) oathâ€™ in Jacob van Maerlantâ€™s The Flower of Nature (Der Nature Bloeme), Western Netherlands, 1st quarter of the 14th century, Add MS 11390, f. 94v
A similar curse is found in a manuscript with a commentary on the Harmony of the Gospels (Royal MS 4 E II) from Evesham Abbey. A colophon that praises the scribeâ€™s work â€” and requests high-quality wine (â€˜vini nobilis haustumâ€™) for him as a reward â€” ends with a curse in which the bookâ€™s thief is wished a â€˜death from evil things: may the thief of this book dieâ€™ (Morteque malorum: raptor libri moriatur).
A colophon in which the scribe curses a bookâ€™s thief to death, from William of Nottinghamâ€™s Commentary on the Harmony of the Gospels, Evesham, c. 1381, Royal MS 4 E II, f. 471r
Other curses give us an insight into how some librarians imagined that the book thieves should die. A quickly scribbled curse in a liturgical manuscript (Add MS 30506) from the church of St Aldate in Gloucester states, â€˜This book is of St Aldate: he that takes this book shall be hauled by the neckâ€™ (f. 170r: â€˜Thys boke ys sancht audatys; he Ã¾at stelys Ã¾e boke shall be haulynth by Ã¾e neckâ€™). An even more harmful curse was issued by the Premonstratensian abbey of St Mary and St Nicholas in Arnstein. The so-called Arnstein Bible (Harley MS 2798), as noted by Marc Drogin (Anathema! Medieval Scribes and the History of Book Curses), damned a book thief to a bloody death by torture, sickness and execution:
A book of [the Abbey of] SS Mary and Nicholas of Arnstein: If anyone steals it: may he die [the death], may he be roasted in a frying pan, may the falling sickness [i.e. epilepsy] and fever attack him, and may he be rotated [on the breaking wheel] and hanged. Amen.
(Liber sancte Marie sancti que Nycolai in Arrinstein Quem si quis abstulerit Morte moriatur in sartagine coquatur caducus morbus instet eum et febres Â· et rotatur et suspendatur Amen)
One of the most harmful book curses written in the Middle Ages? From the Arnstein Bible, W. Germany (Arnstein), c. 1172 Harley MS 2798, f. 235v
Other physical punishments were given explicit religious overtones, such as those that the Benedictine monastery of St Albans wished upon anyone who damaged one manuscript (Royal MS 8 G X) they loaned to monks studying at Gloucester College in Oxford:
A curse that identifies a book thief with Judas Iscariot, from â€˜Doctrinale Antiquitatum Ecclesie Ihesu Christi contra blasfemios Wycleuistasâ€™, mid-15th century, Royal MS 8 G X, f. 1v
This book is given in use to the brothers of Oxford by John Wethamstede, father of the flock of the proto-martyr of the English [St Alban]; if anyone secretly tears this inscription or removes it, may he feel Judasâ€™s noose [around his neck] or forks [presumably handled by demons!].
(Fratribus Oxonie datur in munus liber iste Per \Johannem Whethamstede/patrem pecorum prothomartiris Angligenarum. Quem si quis raptat Â· raptim titulum ue[l] retractet uel Iude laqueum Â· uel furcas sensiat Amen.)
Devils wielding implements which may include a fork, from Breviari d'Amor, Southern France (Toulouse?), 1st quarter of the 14th century, Royal MS 19 C I, f. 185v
Gruesome as these punishments seem, to most medieval readers the worst curses were those that put the eternal fate of their souls at risk rather than their bodily health. A spiritual condemnation was often expressed with the Greek â€˜Anathemaâ€™, sometimes followed by the Aramaic formula â€˜Maranathaâ€™ (â€˜Come, Lord!â€™). Both terms were used in a curse that was added to a manuscript with spiritual letters and sermons (Royal MS 8 F XVII) from Lesnes Abbey:
This book belongs to the church of Thomas the Martyr of Lesnes. Anyone who removes it or does damage to it: if the same person does not repay the church sufficiently, may he be cursed [Anathema Maranatha]. Let it be done. Let it be done. Amen
(Hic liber est ecclessiae beati Thome martyris de Liesnes. Quem qui ei abstulerit . aut illi super eo fraudem fecerit . nisi eidem ecclesie plene satisfecerit ; anathema sit maranatha. fiat. fiat. Amen.)
A book curse with the Anathema-Maranatha formula, from a collection of Latin sermons and letters, 13th century, Royal MS 8 F XVII, f. 1r
A monk from Rochester Abbey emphasised the severity of the â€˜Anathemaâ€™ by claiming that his bookâ€™s thief would be condemned by the entire religious community at Rochester Cathedral:
A volume of Aristotleâ€™s Physics from the monastery of Rochester by John, prior of Rochester: whosoever steals this book from the monastery, conceals it, or erases this inscription, he incurs the curse of â€˜Anathemaâ€™ for one long year from the Priory and the entire community of the Chapter of Rochester.
Volumen de naturalibus Â· aristotelis Â· de Claustro Roffensis Â· Per Johannem Priorem Roffensis Hunc librum quicumque alienauerit ab hoc cla[u]stro Â· alienatum celauerit Â· uel hunc titulum in fraudem deleuerit ; dampnacionem incurrit Anathematis lati singulis annis a Priore et totu cetu capituli Roffensis.
A year-long curse from the monastery of Rochester: Royal MS 12 G II, f. 1v
Other scribes gave weight to their curses by attributing them directly to God-Christ. The aforementioned liturgical manuscript from the church of St Aldate, for example, contains another book curse, written in Middle English, purportedly originating from Christ himself:
This book belongs to the church of St Aldate
This book is one and Christâ€™s curse is another
He that takes the one takes the other Amen.
(ISTE LIBER PERTINET AD SANCTUM ALDATUM
Thys boke ys one and chryst curse ys AnoÃ¾er
he Ã¾at take Ã¾e one take Ã¾e oÃ¾er Amen.)
Christâ€™s book curse: Add MS 30506, f. 169r
Just like physical punishments, scribes could also specify the particular spiritual punishments they had in mind for their booksâ€™ thieves. One example comes from a manuscript from St Albans Abbey whereby the thief was excommunicated. The latter could have learned about what this entailed simply by consulting the stolen book, since the topic of excommunication was discussed in its contents, the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX.
This book belongs to the monastery of St Albans, anyone who steals it from the said monastery should know that he will incur the punishment of excommunication.
(Hic est liber monasteri sancti Albani quem qui a dicto monasterio alienauerit sentenciam excommunicacionis se nouerit incursurum)
A book curse excommunicating a book thief, from a copy of Gregoryâ€™s Decretals, St Albans, mid-13th century, Royal MS 10 C XIII, f. 1r
Another monk from Rochester specified that the thiefâ€™s name would be deleted from the â€˜Book of Lifeâ€™. According to biblical sources, this records the names of those to be saved at the Last Judgement; stealing the manuscript would be turned into a one-way ticket to hell:
This book of the Distinctiones belongs to the monastery of Rochester: anyone who takes it from there, hides or keeps it, or damages or erases this inscription, or makes or causes it to be deleted, may his name be deleted from the Book of Life.
(Liber distinccionum de claustro Roffensis quem qui inde alienauerit Â· alienatum celauerit aut retinuerit Â· uel hunc titulum in fraudem deleueritur Â· deleri ue[l] fecerit aut procurauerit Â· deleatur nomen eius de libro uite Â· Amen Â·)
A book curse for deleting a book thiefâ€™s name from the Book of Life, from the Distinctiones, 13th century, Royal MS 10 A XVI, f. 2r
The use of these book curses seemingly sits at odds with the monastic lifestyle. Medieval monks dedicated their lives to imitating Christ, including his virtues of patience, forgiveness and love for mankind. The fact that monks used these curses testifies to the immense material and spiritual value that they attributed to their libraries: their books had not only been extremely costly and labour-intensive to produce, but often they also contained the only copies of a particular work to which their communities had access. The loss of a book did not only mean a material loss, but it could have permanently deprived a religious community of a work of knowledge that was essential for preserving or developing its religious identity. This may explain why some religious communities went to great lengths to protect their books. Book curses were a radical but effective way of preserving their book collections.
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