By Christian Algar, Curator Printed Heritage Collections
If you will see a pageant truly playâd âŚ like that of Shakespeareâs shepherds in the Forest of Arden, his setting for As You Like It, you can now also see a literal procession of hundreds of thousands of performances advertised on printed historic playbills held at the British Library. Nearly 100,000 intriguing and eye-catching bills have been digitised and are freely available to view online via Explore the British Library
Besides recording a great variety of entertainments (ventriloquism, acrobatics, conjuring and all kinds of performing animals)playbills provide as near an entire historical survey of the performance of British and Irish drama in the 18th and 19th centuries we could hope for. As can be expected, there are a great many examples of Shakespeareâs plays advertised on these playbills. Browsing through a period from the 1780s to the 1860s, we get an impression of the most frequently performed and popular Shakespeare plays such as Macbeth; Hamlet; and Romeo and Juliet. Itâs fun to see these famous titles appear in a range of type and font sizes that are characteristic of historical playbills.
A collage of 19th century playbills for Shakespeareâs big plays
But to find any level of detail, you have to get your noses in and browse through the playbills because thereâs never been the resource to catalogue them; thatâs why the British Library has a crowdsourcing project called In the Spotlight to capture core details â like performance titles, genres and dates. This provides opportunity to uncover all kinds of interesting events and details associated with past performances.
Appearing in this procession of playbills is a performance of King Henry IV with a bonus celebration: a pageant to conclude a drama called, Shakespeareâs Jubilee: or, Stratford upon Avon.
Playbill for âShakesperareâs Jubileeâ performed 20 February 1834. British Library Playbills 263
This pageant at the Theatre Royal in Plymouth was, ânearly a fac-simile of the Processionâ at a festival held in Stratford in 1830. This festival, helpfully described in the exposition on the playbill, was founded on the three-day âJubileeâ of September 1769 in Stratford which was organised by the great actor David Garrick Despite being well attended by dignitaries from across the country, Garrickâs âFollyâ as it became known, was actually a bit of a farce. After opening to the salute of cannon and ending with fireworks, heavy rain and flooding postponed the planned grand procession. The idea was to stage a fully-costumed procession of the principal characters from Shakespeareâs plays carrying banners with dramatic quotes, and with recitals of famous lines for those looking on.
How it might have been: impression of the procession from 1769. British Library C.61.e.2
Garrick made up for the damp-squib in Stratford by staging further face-saving shows in London, but it was not the best start for the history of Shakespeare parades. The next big Stratford celebration in 1827 was met with apathy and after a further Pageant in 1830, the planned âtriennialâ celebration did not take place again until 1847. But browse through these digitised playbills and you will find evidence that there were other Pageants for Shakespeare being held in regional theatres. Details on the verso of a Bristol playbill from 1821, list the plays and characters in an, âOrder of the Pageantâ.
Order of the Bristol Shakespeare pageant. British Library Playbills 204
The local press seemed not to have made much of the show, Shakespeare quotes being predictably used to dub the pageant as âinsubstantialâ and âfadedâ (with no apologies to The Tempest).
The Bristol Pageant was held on Shakespeareâs birthday, April 23rd. But, the motive for the Plymouth show, held at the end of February, seems less apparent. Details from the playbill can help explain
A common feature on playbills tells us that the eveningâs entertainment was, âFor the Benefit of Mr. Henry, Artist, & Mrs. Henryâ. Mr Henryâs, âannual appeal to the supporters of the Dramaâ at the top of the bill is aimed at selling tickets for the performance, the proceeds of which will go to Mr and Mrs Henry. This is a key feature of the economics of theatre history â an annual share of the nightâs takings was a major contribution to those labouring to produce theatre.
Checking the local press helps try and trace how performances fared and further details fall into place. There are conflicting reviews of Mr Henryâs first ever performance as Falstaff, âhe supported the Great Knight very cleverly and elicited much applauseâ says the Plymouth, Devonport and Stonehouse Herald, but other local press reports tell us, âit was a bold attempt â a fearful one â his success was certainly not proportionate to the boldness of the venture.â It seems that though Mr Henry was âfat enoughâ to pull off Falstaff, he did not know at moments what to say and that his part would have benefited from a more attentive reading, âwithout which Mr Henry can never expect to completely succeedâ!
It would seem the reporter in The Devonport Telegraph is suggesting Mr Henry should not give up the day job and it is in yet another newspaper where we find a detail that explains the true meaning of Mr Henry the âArtistâ making reference to his capability for â DRAWING! So it would seem that Mr Henry likely worked on producing illustrated sets to decorate the stage. This is a good illustration in itself of how general theatre workers â not just actors â were given the opportunity to act in plays or performances they concocted for their own Benefit Night performance. Mr Henry, hoped to, âescape the charge of egotismâ but clearly wished to associate himself with the works of the supreme English dramatist.
Review in the âPlymouth & Devon Weekly Journalâ, Feb 20, 1834 revealing the type of âartistâ Mr. Henry is. British Library NEWS6323
Playbills very often provide us with great descriptions and information. Close examination of the order or programme of the procession stimulates thought about the choice of plays, characters, quotations used in the procession. Is there significance in the order?
Playbills provide us with details of the musical elements of entertainment. The playbill tells us that The Mulberry Tree (written for the 1769 Jubilee by Charles Dibdin) was performed after Mr Henryâs pageant.
These advertisements provide a great source for studying dramatic literature and its interpretation on different stages â we are often treated to plot synopses, guides to the âactionâ, and signposts for moral lessons to be drawn by the audience. These can be used to estimate contemporary understandings of historical drama across the regions (all the playbills on In the Spotlight are from regional theatres.)
Shakespeare pageants are of historical importance â they are an expression of the Romantic conception of Shakespeare as supreme creator of character. The pairing and prominence of St George also links the identities of Shakespeareâs drama with an English national expression.
Playbills, like historical newspapers are full of potential rabbit holes. Looking for performances of the Tempest? Do try not to get distracted by this Bristol playbill from 1820 announcing that âa celebrated pedestrianâ will arrive on stage after walking 92 miles in 24 hoursâ - between pubs in Cheltenham and Bristol. All for a considerable sum, it seems.
From British Library Playbills 204
All these performances recorded on playbills really do form what we all know as, âLifeâs rich pageantâ (which, disappointingly for armchair Shakespeare aficionados, is not a quote from the great poet, but simply an old English idiom.)
You can get your nose into more historical playbills and play a part in capturing the details by checking out https://www.libcrowds.com/collection/playbills