The right statistics can really help to focus the mind. I knew that around 620,000 Americans had died during the Civil War, but when I heard Professor David Blight say that if you applied the same death rate per capita to the Vietnam war, some 4 million American soldiers would have died in Vietnam (as opposed to the actual ‚Äďand still staggering figure of c.58,000), that really helped to bring home to me the enormity of the conflict.
I‚Äôve been following Professor Blight‚Äôs Yale course on the war on the wonderful Academic Earth (we can all have a Yale education now!) and another statistic that I learnt, equally staggering but in a different way, is that over 65,000 books have been written on the Civil War, which would tend to give credence to Gertrude Stein‚Äôs comment on its enduring interest. I certainly don‚Äôt think that the Library can claim to have all of them, although our holdings are strong. Matthew is in fact currently working on a feature on the subject for the Library's online gallery.
These days we are all too used to seeing images of war in the papers or on our TV screens but photography was still relatively new at the time of the Civil War. Roger Fenton‚Äôs photographs from the Crimea in 1855 represent one of the earliest attempts to document war, but although he recorded the landscape and the military personnel etc, there are no battle scenes. Not really surprising since the cumbersome equipment and laborious wet-plate photographic process made it much too difficult and dangerous to photograph actual fighting. But Fenton also deliberately chose not to record the bloody aftermath of battle.
Alexander Gardner, a Scot who worked for Matthew Brady, went to photograph the Civil War in 1861 and, unlike Fenton, he did record the resulting carnage. This included the aftermath of one of the bloodiest days in American history at Antietam, Maryland, in September 1862, when McClellan‚Äôs Army of the Potomac faced Robert E. Lee‚Äôs Army of Northern Virginia. And here‚Äôs another statistic from Professor Blight- each year 23,000 candle lamps are placed on the battlefield at a ceremony held to commemorate the number of casualties that fell there over the course of the almost day long battle.
Gardner‚Äôs photographs of the dead at Antietam were exhibited at Brady‚Äôs New York gallery and understandably caused a sensation. But he was soon to part company with Brady (who often took the credit for the photos of others) and set up his own studio. More of Brady‚Äôs photographers joined him and together they continued to document the encampments, soldiers and battle fields. Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War appeared in 2 editions -one in 1865 and one in 1866, both consisting of 2 volumes, each volume containing 50 albumen print photographs, and each photograph accompanied by a descriptive caption. You can now see one of our albums on display in the Library's new exhibition Points of View.
Of course, much has been written on Gardner's 'staging' of some of the scenes and bodies, not to mention the veracity of some of the descriptions (for some examples see our Points of View webpages and also the Library of Congress), but the Sketch Book still represents one of the earliest visual evocations of the horrors of war.