Asian and African studies blog

News from our curators and colleagues


Our Asian and African Studies blog promotes the work of our curators, recent acquisitions, digitisation projects, and collaborative projects outside the Library. Our starting point was the British Library’s exhibition ‘Mughal India: Art, Culture and Empire’, which ran 9 Nov 2012 to 2 Apr 2013. Read more

15 July 2024

Ilana Tahan, 1946-2024

Ilana Tahan OBE

Ilana Tahan receiving her Order of the British Empire for services to scholarship in 2009. All rights reserved


It saddens us deeply to inform you that Ilana Tahan passed away peacefully on Saturday 6 July 2024.


Ilana Tahan joined the British Library as the Curator of Hebrew Collections in 1989. She soon began to collaborate with colleagues across the UK on organizing and systematizing Hebrew librarianship and curation. In 2004, the British Library published her book Memorial volumes to Jewish communities destroyed in the Holocaust: a bibliography of British Library holdings. Ilana was part of the curatorial team behind the Library's flagship exhibition Sacred in 2007, working alongside Colin Baker, Kathleen Doyle, Vrej Nersessian, and Scot McKendrick. In 2008, she published her guide to the British Library's Hebrew collection, Hebrew Manuscripts: The Power of Word and Image. In 2009, she was awarded the Order of the British Empire for her scholarship and work in making the collection more accessible. 


Ilana became the Lead Curator for Hebrew and Christian Orient Collections in 2012, overseeing the Library's holdings of Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, Hebrew, Jewish-language, and Syriac manuscripts and printed books. In this role, she was exceptionally active in reaching out to communities and scholars. She published many articles and chapters on the Hebrew collections and undertook dozens of public workshops and presentations to bring the manuscripts closer to audiences. Her work on the Samaritan manuscripts in particular prompted the Samaritan Community to award her the Samaritan Medal. 



Ilana with colleagues Dr. Colin Baker, then Head of Middle East and Central Asia, and Dr. Michael Erdman, then Turkish and Turkic Curator, at a show and tell for doctoral students in 2018. All rights reserved


Most recently, Ilana curated the very successful exhibition Hebrew Manuscripts – Journey of the Written Word. She worked tirelessly on this project, collaborating with several colleagues at the Library and keeping a close dialogue with academics and religious figures in the Jewish community. Due to the pandemic, the exhibition was open in St Pancras only for a very short period of time, but Ilana was able to find alternative ways to promote the items in the exhibition. She contributed to the development of a virtual tour of the display, which now stands out as a wonderful legacy of her work on the project, and promoted the exhibition online through high profile events, public lectures and private views. In October 2023, the exhibition traveled to the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia, enabling visitors to experience some of the best known Hebrew manuscripts in the British Library’s collection. 


The exhibition coincided with the end of one of our major documentation, conservation and digitization projects – the Hebrew Manuscripts Digitisation Project. The first phase of the project, supported by the Polonsky Foundation and many other supporters, including the Rothschild Foundation Hanadiv Europe, was carried out between 2013 and 2016, with a second phase completed in 2020 - and supported by the National Library of Israel - which Ilana led to a successful completion. Thanks to this remarkable project the whole collection of Hebrew manuscripts at the British Library is now available to researchers and the wider public.


Throughout her career Ilana was fully committed to her work at the Library and passionate about promoting and making accessible the Hebrew collections to specialists and wider audiences. To this end, she published and lectured extensively, and took a very active role on social media channels. She regularly posted blogs on the Asian and African Studies blog, and offered an engaging series of threads on the AAS and Hebrew Manuscripts Twitter/X accounts. 



Ilana explaining the intricate decoration and composition of a Hebrew manuscript at a 2019 Show and Tell. All rights reserved


Ilana was a much respected and esteemed colleague, and on several occasions she received recognition and appreciation for her expertise and her many achievements. She will be remembered for her expert knowledge, dedication and sustained commitment in the field, but also for being such a kind and generous person.


Ilana leaves behind her husband, son, daughter, and two grandchildren. Our thoughts are with them and with all those whom Ilana touched and inspired over her long and impactful career. Together, we celebrate Ilana’s profound and lasting legacy on Hebrew and Jewish Studies scholarship in the United Kingdom and around the world. 


The Asian and African Collections Department


Dr. Luisa Elena Mengoni, 

Head, Asian and African Collections


Dr. Michael Erdman

Head, Middle East and Central Asia

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Narrating Rebirth: an exhibition of Jātaka illustrations from digitised Thai manuscripts

The British Library has been digitising Thai manuscripts for over fifteen years, initiated with a five-year pilot project (2008-2012) which marked the first digitisation of manuscripts from Southeast Asia in the Library. The project was funded by the Royal Thai Government on the auspicious occasion of the 80th Birthday Anniversary of the late King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand, and resulted in the digitisation of over 8,500 folios from 59 Thai manuscripts and the Chakrabongse Archive of Royal Letters. Since completion of the pilot project, 65 more manuscripts and manuscript furniture from the Thai, Lao and Cambodian collections have been digitised thanks to funding from the Henry Ginsburg Legacy.

Illustrations of the Temiya Jātaka (left) and Mahājanaka Jātaka (right) with Pali text in Khmer script written in gold ink in between
Illustrations of the Temiya Jātaka (left) and Mahājanaka Jātaka (right) with Pali text in Khmer script written in gold ink in between. Central Thailand, dated 1894. British Library, Or 16101, f. 3 Noc

Jātaka illustrations from manuscripts digitised in these projects were on display in the exhibition “Narrating Rebirth” at Pridi Banomyong Library, Thammasat University Bangkok, from 1 June - 1 July 2024. Curated by Dr Paul McBain (Head of Thai Studies at Pridi Banomyong International College, Thammasat University) and Jana Igunma (Henry Ginsburg Curator for Thai, Lao and Cambodian, British Library), the exhibition was organised on occasion of the 2nd PBIC International Conference on the Jātaka Tradition of Thailand, which took place at Pridi Banomyong International College on 1 June 2024 .

The exhibition poster for 'Narrating Rebirth
The exhibition poster for 'Narrating Rebirth', 1 June - 1 July 2024

Illustrations from the Jātaka, or Birth Tales of the Buddha, are important for the understanding of Buddhism and the manuscript tradition in Thailand. For the research of artistic representations of scenes from these Birth Tales, specifically from the last ten Jātaka (also known as Mahānipāta Jātaka / มหานิบาตชาดก, or Dasajāti Jātaka / ทศชาติชาดก), illustrated folding books dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries are of particular significance. Often commissioned by a patron to make merit – either on behalf of a deceased relative or for themselves with the hope to attain a better rebirth in the future – these manuscripts usually contain extracts in Pali language from the seven books of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka, sometimes with short extracts from the Vinaya Piṭaka and/or Sutta Piṭaka. Although they do not usually contain text from the Jātaka tales, one can often find multiple illustrations of the finest quality depicting scenes from the last ten Jātaka on the first few folios of a manuscript, and sometimes also as chapter separators.

Printed and mounted illustration from the Nārada Jātaka
Printed and mounted illustration from the Nārada Jātaka. Central Thailand, late 18th century. British Library, Or 14255, f. 8

The exhibition space of the Pridi Banomyong Library was the perfect setting for such a display, guaranteeing excellent exposure to students, researchers and members of the public alike. With four underground levels, this is the only underground library in Thailand, and it is praised for having one of the country’s most comprehensive collections of textbooks, journals, newspapers and archival resources related to the political history of Thailand. Pridi Banomyong was a professor and Thai politician, who, as leader of the civilian faction of the Khana Ratsadon, was part of the coup that brought an end to the absolute monarchy in Thailand in 1932. He founded Thammasat University as an open university in 1934.

Exhibition space at the entrance of Pridi Banomyong Library, Thammasat University
Exhibition space at the entrance of Pridi Banomyong Library, Thammasat University, with a portrait of Pridi Banomyong (left).

Preparations for the exhibition started in October 2023 with the selection of Jātaka illustrations from digitised Thai manuscripts, followed by the compilation of captions and explanatory texts by the co-curators. The aim was to show Jātaka illustrations from different periods of time, to highlight painting styles and painting materials, as well as individual tastes of the painters who always remained anonymous. It was decided to display half of the illustrations as stand-alone artworks, and the other half with text passages that appear alongside these illustrations, all mounted and true to their size in the original manuscripts.

Posters for the announcement of the exhibition and the conference were designed and disseminated widely on social media and by email. Chutiman Chuenjai, a freelance Exhibition Designer and User Experience Designer took charge of the exhibition design, selection of textile backings for the panels on which the art prints were mounted, liaising with the printer who produced the art prints with mounts, and setting up the exhibition and guidance on lighting.

Setting up the exhibition on 31 May 2024 with guidance from the exhibition designer Chutiman Chuenjai (center)
Setting up the exhibition on 31 May 2024 with guidance from the exhibition designer Chutiman Chuenjai (center).

The exhibition designer also constructed a supporting structure for a partial replica of a Thai folding book (Or 16552) from which three folds were selected to give an impression of what the actual manuscript looks like. This particular manuscript was chosen because it contains exquisite illustrations of the key episodes in the Vessantara Jātaka, which is the most popular Birth Tale in Thailand. Displayed were scenes of Prince Vessantara’s mother in her previous heavenly existence, Vessantara making the gift of his elephant, Vessantara and his family taking leave from his mother before going into exile, Vessantara making the gift of his horses, the Brahmin Jujaka requesting Vessantara’s children, and Jujaka taking Vessantara’s children away. Standing at the centre of the exhibition, this partial replica, true to the colours and size of the original manuscript, was a highlight and attracted much interest from people passing by even before the exhibition opened.

Partial replica depicting scenes from the Vessantara Jātaka
Partial replica depicting scenes from the Vessantara Jātaka. Central Thailand, 19th century. British Library, Or 16552

A detailed introductory panel in English and Thai, bi-lingual captions with QR codes linking to the full Jātaka texts online, and a printed exhibition booklet were compiled by the two co-curators. During the conference "The Jātaka Tradition of Thailand" on 1 June, the exhibition “Narrating Rebirth” was officially opened in the presence of Dr Ornthicha Duangratana (Assistant Dean for Research and International Affairs) and the co-curators Dr Paul McBain and Jana Igunma. The opening ceremony was attended by the conference participants and exhibition visitors. It closed its doors four weeks later on 1 July 2024 after receiving many positive comments and photo impressions on social media.

Jana Igunma, Henry Ginsburg Curator for Thai, Lao and Cambodian Ccownwork

08 July 2024

A Who's Who of Early Saudi Statehood: The British Library's 'Wahhabi' Manuscript

Beige sheet of paper with writing in black in Arabic script arranged in rows with red and yellow alternative Arabic text at top of page organized in rows tapering at bottom
The opening text of Volume 1 of Ibn Bishr's 'Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 2v)
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A chance request from a colleague one day had me search our catalogues and Arabic subject guide for histories of the Arabian Peninsula. While I was initially looking for works on Bahrain and the Arabian (or Persian) Gulf, I ended up stumbling upon Or 7718, described as a history of Najd, Baghdad and Basra under the title ‘Unwān al-majd fī ta’rīkh najd (عنوان المجد في تأريخ نجد). The manuscript, when I consulted it, was beautiful if simple in its decoration. Sadly, it didn’t fit the brief, but something about its colour palette and its organization intrigued me. The resulting search about its contents has convinced me that it was well worth the fascination.

‘Unwān al-majd fī ta’rīkh najd was written by al-Shaykh ‘Uthmān bin ‘Abd Allāh bin Bishr (الشيخ عثمان بن عبد الله بن بشر), also known as Ibn Bishr, in 1251 AH (1835 CE; volume 1) and 1270 AH (1854 CE; volume 2). The work is a history (as written on the package) of the Najd (central Saudi Arabia) with elements of the history of Baghdad and Basra. Why these two cities? Because Ibn Bishr’s work is actually two in one: both a history of the Najd region and a life story of Muḥammad ibn Abd al-Wahhāb (محمد ابن عبد الوهاب), the founder of Wahhabism who teamed up with Muḥammad bin Sa‘ūd (محمد بن سعود) in 1744 to unify the states of the Arabian Peninsula. Bin Sa‘ūd was the founder of the first Saudi State, also known as the Emirate of Dir’iyah, based around Dir’iyah, contemporary Saudi Arabia, and established in 1727. The author starts his history in 850 AH (1445-46 CE) and ends in 1270 AH (1853-54 CE), allowing for both the early history of the region and a comprehensive overview of ‘Abd al-Wahhāb’s activities to come across. Over the course of the work, Ibn Bishr recounts ‘Abd al-Wahhāb journeys through the Najd to Basra and Baghdad, where he studies and takes action against what he perceives to be incorrect Islamic practices, before returning to Najd. Much of what we see in Volume 2 takes the form of a chronicle and is therefore crucial to understanding the formation, establishment and territorial expansion of what would eventually become Saudi Arabia.  

Half page of text in Arabic script tapering down to triangle, mainly in black ink with some words in red and yellow ink, along with red oval stamp at bottom of pageBeige sheet of paper with Arabic script text in black in in rows, tapering to a point three quarters of way down page. Two more lines of text are in black ink with red accents
(Left) The colophon of Volume 1, including the additional note on the original composition of the text (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 160r); (Right) The colophon of Volume 2 including a supplication to God. (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 258r).
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Ibn Bishr completed his text in 1853-54 CE. Dating Or 7718, however, is on the tricky side, as the copyist evidently wished to preserve as much of the source text they were using while still creating a unified and standalone work. The first part of the ‘Unwān (ff 2v-160r) ends with a colophon that identifies the author as being ‘al-faqīr ilá raḥmat rabbihi al-muqtadir ‘Uthmān bin ‘Abd Allāh bin ‘Uthmān bin [A]ḥmad bin Bishr al-Najdī al-Ḥanbalī’ (الفقير الى رحمة ربه المقتدر عثمان بن عبد الله بن عثمان بن حمد بن بشر النجدي الحنبلي), effectively identifying Ibn Bishr as both from Najd and a follower of the Hanbali school of Islamic jurisprudence. The main text goes on to state that the manuscript was copied on a Friday in the middle of the month of Rajab in the year 1270 AH, which we know to be the date of completion of the second volume of the work. A brief addendum to the side of the text reads “he said that he had completed it [the volume] in Rajab of the year 1251 AH.” The date of Sha‘bān 1270 AH is found on f 258r, the colophon of the second volume of the work. 

Beige paper with Arabic script text in black ink in rows with some text scribbled out in red and black ink and a few words in the margin to the rightBeige sheet of paper with Arabic script text in black ink and some words in red or yellow ink, with a gap between the penultimate and ultimate line of text of a few centimetres
(Left) A folio of Volume 2 showing text crossed out with a reader's addendum. (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 255v); (Right) A folio of Volume 2 with a gap in the body of the text. (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 181v).
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The note on f 160r about the date of the first work being 1251 AH is in a different hand from the main text and matches a number of annotations throughout the codex. I suppose that these additions to the text imply that it was copied after 1270 AH from an earlier complete version against which corrections could be made. Indeed, there is an odd gap in the text on f 181r where the copyist appears to have stopped mid-sentence before starting on a new section of text a few centimetres below. For a tabyīḍah or fair copy of the text, as the copyist is wont to call it in the colophons, there seem to be an awful lot of mistakes or gaps. 

Beige sheet of paper with alternating lines of Arabic-script text in red and yellow ink tapering to a point a quarter down the page followed by black ink Arabic-script text in a blockBeige sheet of paper with large Arabic-script text in the middle of the page written in black ink
(Left) The title of the text with Bin 'aybān's tarjamah and a note on the identity of the copyist. (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 2r); (Right) An ownership note and a shakier attempt at copying out the tarjamah. (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 1v)
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Corrections, or perhaps emendations, to the main body of the work aren’t the only textual additions we find. Four notable inscriptions at the front of the volume provide additional information about the history of the manuscript. One of them (f 1v) is obviously a learner practicing copying out the text on f 2r. Just above this is a brief ownership inscription stating the volume belongs to "‘Alī Abū Niyān wakīluhu Nāṣr bin ‘Abd ‘anna[hu] (or ‘Abdān?) min ahl al-Riyāḍ," (علي أبو نيان وكيله ناصر بن عبد ان من اهل الرياض) placing the work in Riyadh, capital of contemporary Saudi Arabia, at some point in the late 19th century CE. It must have made its way from there to Cairo, where it was acquired by Maurice Naaman and eventually sold to the British Museum in 1912, at some point in the late 19th or early 20th centuries. 

Before making that trip, however, another Saudi Shaykh, ‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘aybān (عبد العزيز بن عيبان), wrote a tarjamah or brief biography of Ibn Bishr on f 2r, just before the start of the actual text and below the title written by the copyist. Bin ‘aybān is himself mentioned in the text of the ‘Unwān, in an episode from 27 Rabī' al-Thānī 1265 AH (17 June 1849 CE) when Imām Fayṣal (Fayṣal bin Turkī Āl Sa'ūd) orders him to remain at Riyadh with his son, 'Abd al-Allāh bin Fayṣal Āl Sa'ūd, whom Fayṣal has just appointed his successor. Although I haven't found 'aybān died, this note is like not from long after the manuscript was copied. Just above his tarjamah is a brief note that "I say it clearly and openly: what you see here from beginning to end was written by Muḥammad bin ‘Umar al-Fākhrī (محمد بن عمر الفاخري)." This undoubtedly refers to the famed Saudi historian and contemporary of Ibn Bishr of the same name who lived between 1188 and 1277 AH (1772/73-1860/61 CE). We therefore have a definite range of some six years within which the manuscript could have been copied, provided that the person who wrote this note was truthful. 

Largely blank beige piece of paper with eight lines of Arabic-script text tapering to a point with alternate lines in red and yellow ink
The title page for Volume 2 of the work showcasing the red and yellow inks used for decoration throughout. (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 161r)
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The British Library’s copy of ‘Unwān al-majd fī ta’rīkh najd is remarkable for more than just its content and the individuals attached to it. A quick look through the volume shows even and exceptionally legible naskh. The handwriting is clearly practiced and smooth with similarities to other Najdi hands. The fluidity of the text highlights al-Fākhrī’s mastery of the copyist’s practice, especially when compared to the shakier letters of al-‘aybān’s text. More impressive is the use of colour in the manuscript. The main text is copied in black with section headings and important words highlighted in a light red, almost orange, quite distinct from the deep, bold red of manuscripts from Anatolia and Syria. Even more striking is the use of a dark yellow in titles and important words and phrases. Red and yellow are employed in alternation, sometimes in odd and even lines like those for the title of the work and the sections; or even within phrases, as in the title of the work in the colophon of the first part. A similar, but not identical, alternating use of light red and yellow is found in another one of the Library’s manuscripts, Sabā'ik al-laḥīn (سبائك اللحين) by Ḥumayd bin Muḥammad bin Ruzayq (حميد بن محمد بن رزيق) (Or 6563), sourced from Oman in 1903. Indeed, a colleague (thanks, Jenny Norton-Wright!) remarked that the colours remind her of Omani manuscripts that she's seen. The use of lighter shades of yellow and red can also be seen in the collection of Zaydī manuscripts from Yemen at the University of Leiden (thank you for this tip, Dr. Annabel Gallop!). A closer match might be the collection of Minhāj al-sunnah al-nabawiyah fī naqḍ kalām al-shī‘ah wa’l-qadariyah by Ibn Taymiyyah held at the King Fahad National Library in Riyadh. These were copied later than Or 7718 and by two different scribes, neither of whom was al-Fākhrī.

Or 7718 has not been the subject of any studies in English or other Western European languages, at least not that I’ve been able to find. It has, however, elicited a fair amount of excitement among Saudi scholars and X users, starting in 2018 when an article that mentioned the work appeared in the Saudi newspaper al-Iqtiṣādiyah. Excitement peaked again after images of the manuscript were posted by Dr. Muḥammad bin Turkī al-Turkī, a scholar of fiqh and ḥadīth at King Saud University in 2021, and again in 2023 by another Saudi account dedicated to resources on Saudi history. For Saudi readers, the British Library manuscript forms an interesting counterpart to a work held in Riyadh, housed in the King ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Library. This copy has formed the basis of multiple edited volumes of the text published in Arabic, including a 2002 edition edited by ‘Abd Allāh bin Muḥammad al-Munīf

The text has also been an important source for Anglophone scholars of Wahhabism and the history of the Arabian Peninsula, although they have tended to cite the printed versions and only mention the British Library manuscript: George Rentz and his The Birth of the Islamic Reform Movement in Saudi Arabia; former University of Jordan and McGill University professor Ahmad M. Abu Hakima, who referred to it in his History of Eastern Arabia, 1750-1800; Michael Cook, whose 1992 paper ‘On the Origins of Wahhabism’ compares multiple sources of ‘Abd al-Wahhāb’s life and inspiration; Cole M. Bunzel, for his Wahhabism: The History of a Militant Islamic Movement; UCLA Middle East, South Asia and Islamic Studies Librarian Sohaib Baig’s 2020 doctoral dissertation ‘Indian Hanafis in an Ocean of Hadith’; Bilal Tahir’s 2020 introduction to Wahhabi history, ‘Wahhabism and the Rise of the Saudis: The Persecuted Become the Persecutors’; Jörg Matthias Determann in his Historiography in Saudi Arabia; and, most recently, Shahajada M. Musa for his Masters thesis ‘The Emergence of a Scholar from a Garrison Society’ at the University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Perhaps the enthusiasm in KSA will lead more Anglophone scholars to take a closer look at Or 7718 as an object study in and of itself, beyond the content of the text. 

Or 7718 'Unwān al-majd fi ta'rīkh al-Najd f 177v inset
Section of a folio from Volume 2 showing additional information added by a reader about the identities of two individuals mentioned in the text and the nature of a particular run-in with enemies. (Ibn Bishr, Unwān al-majd fī ta'rīkh najd. 1850s. Saudi Arabia. Or 7718, f 177v)
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There is clearly much more to be done to understand this remarkable example of Najdi cultural heritage in the British Library’s Arabic manuscript holdings. While there can be no doubt that Ibn Bishr’s text is of great value to understanding the early history of Wahhabism and Saudi Arabia, the additional information found through the work appears to be no less valuable in tracking out the country’s intellectual history. 

Dr. Michael Erdman, Head, Middle East and Central Asia
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Sources and Further Reading

Abu Hakima, Ahmad M. 1965. History of Eastern Arabia 1750-1800: The Rise and Development of Bahrain and Kuwait (Beirut: Khayats).

Abu Hakima, Ahmad M. 1988. History of Eastern Arabia 1750-1800: The Rise and Development of Bahrain, Kuwait and Wahhabi Saudi Arabia (London: Probsthains).

Bunzel, Cole M. 2023. Wahhabism: The History of a Militant Islamic Movement (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

Cook, Michael. 1992. ‘On the Origins of Wahhabism’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 2(2): 191-202.

Determann, Jörg Matthias. 2021. Historiography in Saudi Arabia: Globalization and the State in the Middle East (London: IB Tauris).

Ibn Bishr, ‘Uthmān bin ‘Abd Allāh. 1983. ‘unwān al-majd fī ta’rīkh najd, eds. Āl al-shaykh, ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin ‘Abd al-Laṭīf bin ‘Abd Allāh and Al-Shithrī, Muḥammad ibn Nāṣir ibn ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz (Riyāḍ: Dār al-Ḥabīb).

Rentz, George S. 2005. The Birth of the Islamic Reform Movement in Saudi Arabia (London: The London Centre of Arab Studies).

Sā‘ātī, Yaḥyá Maḥmūd. 1414/1993. Waṣfīyat al-makhṭūṭāt fī’l-mamlakah al-‘arabīyah al-sa‘ūdīyah ilá ‘ām 1403h (al-Riyāḍ: Maktabat al-Malik Fahd al-waṭanīyah).