Collection Care blog

Behind the scenes with our conservators and scientists


Discover how we care for the British Library’s Collections by following our expert team of conservators and scientists. We take you behind the scenes into the Centre for Conservation and the Scientific Research Lab to share some of the projects we are working on. Read more

16 January 2019

Course on Asian Papers and their Applications in Paper Conservation

Instructor: Minah Song, independent paper conservator (
Date: 18th, 19th and 20th June (Tue - Thu), 2019- 3 days
Place: The British Library, 96 Euston Road, London NW1 2DB
Enrollment limit: 12
Registration fee: 480 GBP (materials included)


This three-day intensive workshop is designed to provide both emerging and established conservation professionals with the theoretical and practical foundation for understanding Asian papers and their applications in paper conservation. The workshop consists primarily of hands-on activities with a lecture, group discussions and examinations of various Asian papers.

Participants will familiarize themselves with history and characteristics of Chinese, Korean and Japanese paper-making, including an overview of contemporary Asian paper production. Each participant will be presented with a set of different paper samples and will study the papers first hand and examine the fibers, sheet formation, alkali content and the results of different manufacturing processes and drying methods. Different Asian paper fibers will be compared with the help of microscopic images.

In a practical session, participants will make small-sized paper samples using simple tools with paper mulberry fibers and formation aid. They will also use cotton fibers as a comparison. Participants will make modern equivalent of drying board (karibari) using a honeycomb board and mulberry paper.

Participants will study and share details of various methods of repair and lining techniques using different Asian papers, depending on their opaqueness, texture, and strength, appropriate for specific objects. For example, participants will try double-sided lining with thin mulberry tissue, drying a lined object on a drying board, and making pre-coated tissue with different adhesives. Useful tips in toning techniques with acrylic paints for mulberry paper will be discussed.

Paper conservation

For further details and online registration see:

Contact the instructor:

03 January 2019

Exploring and Recording Textiles in the British Library Collections

Frances Casey, PhD Research Placement

It is perhaps not widely known that the British Library has a diverse and fascinating range of textiles which span all collection areas. These textiles range from fabric covers for Torah scrolls and silk escape maps of Berlin, to a Japanese children’s book resembling a baby in a sleeping bag and Captain Cook’s samples of bark cloth from the South Pacific Islands. Yet, despite the number of textiles in the collections, many of these have not been recorded or catalogued in their own right, although most have a Library shelfmark. If textile items have been catalogued in the Library, then their descriptions can be inconsistent.

Following on from an investigation by the Library’s Textile Conservator, Liz Rose, my role as part of the British Library’s PhD placement scheme was to identify textiles in the Library and record information about them into a textile specific database. This involved referring to and searching the Library catalogues, as well as liaising with curators across collections to view textile items, photograph them, and input their details into the textile database using the Library’s shelfmark system.

Despite the wide variety of textiles in the Library, it is possible to identify three general forms that they take in the collections. These can be loosely termed: Textual Textiles; Associated Textiles; and Component Textiles – although some can be a combination of these.

Textual Textiles

As the library is primarily concerned with written content as well as images and sound, books and manuscripts comprise the main part of the Library collections. In some cases, textiles can take the form of the text and image items. For example, the theatrical playbill shown here is printed on silk. This playbill is the ‘textual’ item of interest to the library.

Theatrical Playbill

Theatrical Playbill, 1850 (Tab 689 a 2).

Associated Textiles

Textile items can also be associated with written content or image items, although they may not form the specific item of interest to the Library. For example, the Torah mantle illustrated is associated with a written Torah. This mantle may have been re-used from another purpose, and so this textile potentially has an alternative history and associations, e.g. those of design, which are in addition to those of its role as a mantle. Associated textiles are often items that have been obtained by the Library alongside text or image items, i.e. they have not been collected in their own right.

Torah Mantle

Torah Mantle, 1750-1899 (OMS/Or 13027/2).

Component Textiles: These can be Symbolic and Functional

Textiles can also be a component part of the text item: symbolic or functional. For example, the embroidered book cover shown here refers to the content of the bible through the symbolism of the cover design. It therefore has both a symbolic and functional role. There are many textile book jackets and doublures in the Library, and these textile features often add significance to the text content.

Holy Bible

Holy Bible, 1648 (C.8.g .13).

This placement research project has emphasised that textiles are part of the story of the objects in the Library. They have a relationship to the written content, and understanding them can help us to understand that content.

Although the British Library catalogues are a rich source of textile information, there is not one foolproof or consistent way of extracting textile information from them. It is helpful to cross reference catalogues for further information, in particular textiles can be found in the Explore, Archives and Manuscripts, Illuminated Manuscripts, Digitised Manuscripts and Bookbindings catalogues.

The Textile Database

The textile specific database has been designed to incorporate details of textile features, whilst also maintain a link and reference to the existing catalogue records. The information recorded in the database includes details of the Library Division/Department/Collection; Shelfmark; British Library catalogue description; Textile related description and components; and assessment photographs. At the moment, this database is only used for in-house Library reference by the textile conservator, but there may be the potential to make this information accessible to the public in the future.

During this research, 155 shelfmarks were recorded resulting in a total of 1,074 textile items identified in the textile database. The discrepancy between the shelfmark numbers and the number of textile items is due to the way in which more than one textile can be recorded under a single shelfmark. As a result of information gathered during the placement, there are 190 more shelfmarks to add to the database, and the records associated with these are prepared for continuation of this useful research.


Bradford Manufacturing Company, cloth sample, c1880, (Evan. 7152).

In the future, the quantity of textile items recorded will continue to grow as items are discovered in the collections or acquired by the Library. As textiles are present in all collecting Divisions of the Library, and they continue to enter the collections, recording textiles is best seen as an ongoing activity rather than a finite project. Based upon the fact that textiles span the Library, it is likely that there are at least 10,000 textile items across the British Library collection, although this is likely to be quite a conservative estimate.

Cosmic Diagram

Aḍhāī-dvīpa, Hindi Jain cosmic diagram, 1830, (Add.Or.1814). Polychrome water based paint on cotton.

Future Research

We are then left with the question, what use might this research be put to in the future? Once textile items are identified and located, it is possible to plan for their long-term care. Preventative conservation can take place and storage needs can be assessed. It is also possible to carry out remedial conservation work. For example, as a result of enquiries into textile items in the collections, the Cosmic Jain Diagram shown here was identified for treatment to reduce folds, stabilise flaking paint and rehouse.

Information about textiles also has the potential to enrich our knowledge about the Library’s collections. It can be used to develop research and inform Library exhibitions. Research which starts with textile information has the potential to draw out associations that we might otherwise miss. This placement project therefore lays a foundation to be built upon in the future.

For further information about textiles in the Library, or to book a tour of textile items, contact Liz Rose, Textile Conservator on

29 November 2018

Dealing with computer viruses in digital collections

Evanthia Samaras, PhD placement - Digital Preservation 

Malware, or ‘malicious software’ such as computer viruses are a significant digital collection care challenge. The British Library collects a large range of digital content, so it is important that we identify any malware that could potentially put the digital collections, or our users, at risk. We also need to properly consider the question: How should we deal with malware-infected materials in digital collections?


How do we identify malware?

The Library has strict processes in place to check for malware in digital collections. For example:

  • As part of our Flashback disk imaging project, we have scanned over 16,000 floppy, CD and DVD discs from the 1980s to 2000s for malware using anti-virus software. Infected items are then moved to a designated ‘quarantine’ area.
  • For websites collected as part of the UK Web Archive, the Library scans every file collected (over several billion files each year!). Website files infected with malware are quarantined and ‘deactivated’ using an encryption tool so that the files cannot be read or opened (see this blog for more information).

Compared to other institutions around the world, we actually do more virus checking than many other libraries (especially for our web archives).

What are the options for dealing with malware?

The four main options for dealing with malware-infected material are:

  • Discard the malware.
  • Put aside and quarantine (then process at a later date).
  • Fix them (try to remove malware).
  • Try to get another clean version from publisher/donor.

There is also another option: Keeping the malware as a collection in its own right.

Should we collect malware?

Scholars such as Jonathan Farbowitz of New York University argue that we should be preserving malware. He suggests that:

Malware is a form of cultural heritage and an important part of the historical record… If malware were not preserved, a significant portion of contemporary computer users’ experiences as well as the “texture” of the internet and of computing itself would be lost (pp. 10, 12).

If the British Library were to start forming collections of malware, how could we ensure they are maintained safely over time?

Computer security and anti-virus software companies collect examples of malware for research and development (see the Anti-Malware Testing Standards Organization’s Real-Time Threat List). Therefore, it is indeed possible to keep malware in controlled environments over time to facilitate study.

But it is less clear whether libraries should take custodianship of such material. Could it jeopardise the ongoing care of our digital collections?

Malware in the future

It is expected that the British Library will have to deal with malware for many years to come. Making sure our collections remain safe and usable for our readers is a priority for the Library. Yet it is also important that we consider what our readers may want to access in the future. Perhaps malware could be a collection in its own right? But for now, we will continue to tread with caution when dealing with malware in our digital collections.