Collection Care blog

3 posts from February 2017

13 February 2017

The beauty within: conservation of manuscript Delhi Arabic 1928

Flavio Marzo reports on the conservation of a unique manuscript from the Delhi Arabic collection.

I have recently undertaken the conservation of a very interesting Arabic manuscript that is a good example of how the mixture of features means richness and beauty.

The manuscript, produced in the first half of the XIX century, contains two different texts bound together, about cosmology and astronomy. This book, measuring 285 x 175 x 30 mm, is one of the scientific volumes that we are presently digitising within the project sponsored by the Qatar Foundation, here on the 6th floor of the British Library, for the Qatar Digital Library web site.

The front and back cover of the manuscript, lying side by side, completely separated from the text block and spine. The covers are handmade and roughly the same in imagery, bearing a central ovoid which has had its illustration worn away. This shape is buttressed at either end by two shield-like shapes, which again bear traces of imagery. They are on a brown background, framed in black, in itself framed in brown. Both covers bear writing on white stickers.
Right/front and left/back cover of Delhi Arabic 1928.
The spine of the book, as viewed from the side of the manuscript. The heavy wear can be seen clearly, with only a small amount of the original leather still present, at the centre. The two ends have both been heavily worn, and the text block can be seen coming through the brown underlayer of fabric. Round Insect damage holes can also be seen.
The spine of the book.

 

This manuscript is also another item from the Delhi Arabic Collection; a fantastic series housed at the British Library that has been the subject of other previous blog posts of mine, written for the British Library Collection Care blog.

The book came to us because it needed extensive conservation before any further handling, from cataloguing to photography, would have been possible. Something needed to be done, but as soon as I started to examine the book in detail I realised how interesting and unique its binding was.

Categories are essential to communicate, we need a common language to share information and a common vocabulary to be able to understand each other, but this inevitably often requires simplification. The history of book binding and the craft of book making are not different, we have created a vocabulary that helps us to categorise styles, techniques and features, assigning to specific definitions chronologically and geographically defined areas.

‘Islamic style binding’ is one of them; it identifies books that are bound following specific techniques and are characterised by specific codified and agreed upon features.

At a first look, this book seemed to bear all of those characteristics:

1. A type of decoration with inlays made of tooled toned paper was applied to the leather, as well as being framed with lines of drawn gold pigment. 
2. The boards were not larger than the book block (no squares).
3. It had a flat spine.
4. The burnished shining paper of the pages bore Arabic writing.

A paper inlay on the inner corner of one of the covers, showing decoration that has been, along with the corner of the cover, attacked by insect pests, in the evidence of round bore holes, while the corner itself is heavily damaged and the iternal structure is exposed.
One of the paper inlays, lifting.

 

I was also expecting an unsupported sewing (without sewing supports) and Islamic style end bands, but this was not the case.

The sewing, made with a very thick linen thread was actually made on strips of tanned leather with the thread passing behind them in the so called ‘French style technique’ (link stitch) where the thread passages are linked together during the sewing, as visible in the following image.

A closeup image of the manuscript with its front cover open, showing the inside of the cover and the front page, and text block. The image is illustrating the damage done to the manuscript, as the cover is almost entirely detached from the main text block. There is a large triangular open tear on the front page, while both textblock and cover show severe damage caused by insects, as evidenced by small bore holes and deep grazing marks at the corners.

a zoomed in image of the manuscript on its spine side, showing the text block and centred on the sewing in the 'French style' the white threads interweaving. In the bottom left a finger can just be seen holding back the very tattered remnants of the spine.
The leather strips and the passages of the sewing thread in the ‘French style’.

 

The end bands, or at least what was left of them (only the one at the tail survived almost entirely) were also a surprise, they were in a western style, sewn with two silk threads (pink and green) onto a round core made of linen cord.

The Manuscript shown with the focus on the end bands at the bottom of the exposed spine. The end band is brightly colored in green and pink thread, somewhat frayed at the ends, wrapped around a linen core. The cover of the book can be seen as well, with some of the insect bore holes prevalent.
Detail of the surviving 'western style' end band at the tail of the book spine.

 

What a magnificent multicultural binding! An Islamic style cover with French sewing and western end bands; how many stories this damaged little book is telling all at once - not only the fascinating content of the text but also the intriguing mixture of features that speaks of a binder obviously bridging two different worlds and their book binding craftsmanship.

The book was made in the XIX century, a time when the western domination of the Far East (the book was part of the Imperial Mughal Library so possibly produced in India) was already quite established, and so the reciprocated exchange in craftswork and tastes.

Was the binder a westerner or an easterner artisan? It is hard to tell even if the predominance of eastern features, like the attachment of the leather cover to the book block achieved by only adhering the leather to the spine without any lacing of the supports, makes me favour the second option.

The challenge here was then how to treat the book. The leather strips were completely gone and the sewing very loose. A huge amount of insect damage, especially on the spine folds of the bifolia, had made most of the pages detached. Likewise, the leather on the spine and the board edges were almost completely gone.

Approaches in modern conservation are based on some clear principles and ethics, two of which are ‘minimal intervention’ and ‘fit for purpose’. In this specific case I chose the ‘minimal’ approach aimed at keeping all the historical evidence of an object undisturbed as much as possible. I decided to work ‘in situ’ and try to restore all the elements of the binding leaving them as they were.

This was a very ‘minimal’ but not at all ‘fit for purpose’ approach. Digitisation project workflows are based on the constant processing of material to be imaged and uploaded online. Conservation within these work streams is there to support this flow, making sure that the items processed are stabilized and safely handled to produce good quality images. In this context, the ‘fit for purpose’ approach means that conservation treatments on single items should not take more than 5 to 10 hours to be completed. To repair the manuscript, however, took me one week. The time was needed and it was found within the scope of the project, but making sure that we were also keeping a steady flow of material to work on for the rest of the workflow strands.

A new spine lining made of Japanese paper was applied onto the spine to secure the book block as much as possible and to support in place the remnants of the end bands before starting to work on the pages.

The manuscript undergoing treatment, seated in a wooden vice with handles at the edge of both sides of the photo. The spine is free of the vice, and the linen remnants of the spine hve been reinforced with Japanese tissue paper, while there are white linen strips inserted under the two central sewing. A green desk can be seen in the background, with scissors, a metal ruler, a metal spatula tool and a green pencil.
The spine of the book and the remnants of the end bands are reinforced with Japanese paper layers adhered with wheat starch paste and the new linen tapes inserted under the passage of the sewing.

 

New cotton tapes were inserted under the sewing thread passages where the leather strip supports were originally placed. In most of the sections the sewing thread was secured in place with small pieces of Japanese paper and wheat starch paste. The loose pages were secured with hinges of Japanese paper, making sure that the correct collation was maintained.

The boards were re-attached to the book block as they had been by attaching the original linen spine lining and the remnants of the old leather supports reinforced with the new cotton tapes.

All the remnants of the covering leather on the spine were secured to the spine lining now supported by a new Japanese paper hollow. No infill with new leather was made, but the spine was repaired only with thin toned Japanese paper instead, leaving the linen fabric of the original lining exposed.

The Manuscript book photographed after conservation work. The book is lying down, with spine facing the camera. The spine itself has been reworked, with the linen backing and the remnants of leather spine well afixed and consolidated with toned Japanese tissue paper along the exposed linen backing of the spine.
The book after the conservation work.

 

During the conservation of the book block, a note was also found inserted. Written on this note are the shelf mark and probably a request from the cataloguer for the restoration of the book (‘Repairs & binding’).

The note was most surely inserted at the time the book was being catalogued since the handwriting on it matches the calligraphy on the cataloguing labels adhered on the right and left boards.

Two photographs compared side by side. The left photo is a pink paper slip, with tidy handwriting in black ink, as a request for 'Repair & binding'. Running down the right hand side of the slip is a printed message in a bold capitalised font 'M.S. Not To Be Issued'. The image on the right is of the two stickers afixed to the cover of the book, in wgite with two thick and thin blue borders. The text, in the same handwriting and thus showing then eed for comparison, has in the top sticker, 'Delhi Arabic 1928' while the second, slightly more rectangular lower sticker, reads in the same handwriting, 'Arabic catalogue' and in roman numerals, 3, then 2, then the numbers 2187. Some insect bore damage holes can be seen around the stickers on the front board.
Pink slip with handwritten shelf mark and annotation compared with the shelf mark written on the labels adhered on the right/front board.

 

At the British Library, the practice of inserting pink slips to highlight the need for urgent conservation work is still in use today. This procedure obviously dates back quite far.

We know that the manuscripts in the Delhi collection were moved from Calcutta to the India Office in London, and at a certain point divided into their respective language collections. This arrangement was made after they were catalogued in 1937, so it is reasonable to assume that the labels were placed not much later than this date.

The request on the slip was obviously ignored and the book was not restored, a ‘negligence’ that probably saved the manuscript from a complete rebinding that would have destroyed all the historical evidences of this unique artefact.

The perception of beauty is another very controversial topic; this work of mine was meant to preserve as much as possible all the evidence of a very unique and fascinating item, keeping the original features in place and preserving all the possibly hidden information for future research.

The tattered look of the damaged book was also preserved, arguably not a pleasing look, but time has left its marks and that has its own beauty.

Flavio Marzo

Understanding leather - from tannery to collection

Five days Continuing Professional Development (CPD) training for Conservators (10 -12 participants only).

The logo for The Leather Conservation Centre. The image is of a stylised plant in black, on a green background square. On a wider white square, underneath and below the image, are the words 'Conserve & Care' and underneath that in a bolder font, is 'The Leather Conservation Centre' in green. The Logo for the University of Northhampton. The image consists of the logo image itself, in a guitar pick-like shape, in black with white curved parallel lines inside. 'The University of Northampton' in large capitalised font and underneath in smaller lower case font is 'institute for Creative Leather Technologies' all on a white background.

Main Subjects

  • Understanding Leather
  • Understanding the threats to the preservation of leather in your collection

The course is a mixture of theory and practical (tanning, handling different leathers and examining deterioration problems).

Each aspect of leather production is explored in both a theoretical and practical way, and explained in relation to deterioration processes and resultant care and conservation problems.

Participants will have opportunities to try some of the production methods using both modern and traditional techniques.

Experienced professionals are on-hand to answer questions and the course takes place in an informal group, where students are encouraged to take part and get involved.

A photo displaying leather and various accroutrements. Resting on a table is a core or roller covered in fine lambs wool. surrounding it are various types and shapes of leather. In the centre is a black tool, square on one end, but with a gauge within.

Participants

This course is aimed at conservators, curators and other museum professionals with responsibility for collections which include historic leather items, who wish to understand (a) leather making processes and (b) common deterioration problems found in historic leather objects.

Those who attended the course in previous years found it to be immensely useful as well as enjoyable.

To be held at:

The Leather Conservation Centre & Northampton University’s Institute of Creative Leather Technologies,
The University of Northampton,
Boughton Green Road,
Northampton NN2 7AN

Dates - Monday 26 to Friday 30 June 2017

Cost - £495 tuition only. There are a few bursaries available for students on recognised conservation courses which will bring the cost down to £295.

An accommodation list will be available.

NB The course will not run with less than 10 participants.

For further information or to book a place on this course please contact - Yvette Fletcher, Head of Conservation, The Leather Conservation Centre on email lcc@northampton.ac.uk.

Lab coats, gloves, boots and other necessary PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) will be provided.

Please note the course does not cover conservation treatments or techniques (please visit the West Dean website www.westdean.org.uk for information on CPD course on conservation of leather).

03 February 2017

Job opportunity: Conservator – Adam Matthew Digitisation Project

Full Time, Fixed Term Contract to 31 March 2018

The British Library leads and collaborates in growing the world’s knowledge base. We have signed a partnership with Adam Matthew Digital to make thousands of digitised historic documents and manuscripts available online to researchers, scholars and the general public. The Conservation department, which comprises some 50 people, is responsible for the care of one of the largest, richest and most diverse research collections in the world.

A close-up image of a book lying on its side, with detached cover and spine, which is resting on a grey plastazote book support. The text block is weighted down with a brown book weight.

This is an opportunity for an experienced Conservator to work closely with the imaging team, Project Manager and Curators. For the majority of the time you will be based in the imaging studio carrying out the ordering of materials to ensure the workflow, condition checks and preparation treatments on a range of collection items that are being digitised as part of this project. Some conservation treatments will be carried out in the conservation studio. You’ll operate with minimal supervision and have the skills and knowledge to plan, manage and track your work to ensure that deadlines are met. You must be able to communicate effectively with people at all levels, and be able to keep clear, consistent and accurate records of all activities undertaken.

You need to have either a degree in conservation or equivalent knowledge and skills sets, and practical hands-on experience in conservation of library materials for digitisation and/or large-scale conservation projects. A broad knowledge of available conservation treatments within the field of book/paper conservation together with the ability to diagnose conservation problems and to develop and evaluate options for solutions. You should also have a high level of manual dexterity and the ability to treat fragile and delicate materials, together with knowledge of materials chemistry and the properties, behaviours and interaction of a wide range of organic and inorganic materials. A good knowledge of preventive conservation issues is also required with the ability to deliver training on the handling of library material to support and implement best practices within the British Library/Adam Matthew Digital partnership project and collaboration with the colleagues in the main British Library Conservation Studio (BLCC).

Job reference number 01095
For the full job profile and to apply please visit British Library website, https://britishlibrary.recruitment.northgatearinso.com/birl/

Closing Date: 26 February 2017
Interviews will take place in mid-March 2017