A Calendar Page for January 2015
Regular readers will know that one of our blog traditions is to highlight a calendar from a particular medieval manuscript throughout the course of the year. Past manuscripts have included the Isabella Breviary, the Hours of Joanna the Mad, the Golf Book, and the Huth Hours. In 2015 we are pleased to present a manuscript that has featured on our blog before, the London Rothschild Hours. Confusingly, this manuscript is often also called the Hours of Joanna the Mad (or the Hours of Joanna I of Castile), as it has been suggested that the manuscript belonged to that famous lady.
Miniature of John the Evangelist on Patmos with his symbol the eagle, being tormented by a demon and visions above, at the beginning of his suffrage, from the London Rothschild Hours (The Hours of Joanna I of Castile), Netherlands (Ghent?), c. 1500, Add MS 35313, f. 10v-11r
Evidence that the book was Joannaâ€™s is tantalising, but inconclusive. The repeated presence of Joannaâ€™s name saint, John the Evangelist, is a potential clue, and the presence of a number of Spanish saints in the calendar suggests that it was probably produced for a member of the Spanish aristocracy.
Miniature of the Pentecost, with the Virgin Mary at the centre seated at a lectern, Add MS 35313, f. 33v
In any case, this manuscript is certainly a lavish production, and the prominent places given to women and books in the miniatures indicate that it was prepared for a noble lady who was highly literate. Every miniature in the manuscript â€“ and there are many â€“ is surrounded by a detailed and extravagant border, often containing animals, flowers, or jewels.
Miniature of St George and the dragon, surrounded by a jewelled border, Add MS 35313, f. 223v
The structure of the calendar echoes the beauty of the rest of the manuscript. Each folio contains a single month, beginning with a small painting of the sign of the zodiac at the top. Below this is the listing of the saintsâ€™ days for the month, and, unusually, every slot is filled with an observance or feast. Even more unusual are the roundels on the outer edge of the folio that contain illustrations of the most important saintsâ€™ days, those days marked in red on the calendar (which is where we get our contemporary phrase â€˜red letter daysâ€™). At the bottom of each calendar page is a miniature of the labour for that month, painted by one of the most accomplished Flemish illuminators of the day.
Calendar page for January, Add MS 35313, f. 1v
Our calendar for January begins with a particularly charming scene. The traditional labour for this wintery month is to feast before a fire, and at the bottom of the folio we can see a couple preparing to do just that in their bedchamber, watched by an attentive cat. Outside, a bundled man appears to be making his own way home.
Detail of a bas-de-page miniature of a couple feasting indoors, and a man standing outside, from a calendar page for January, Add MS 35313, f. 1v
Four saintsâ€™ days have been given red letter status in this manuscript, and one notable one is the conversion of St Paul (see below); the constraints of monochrome still allow for some sense of drama for the scene on the road to Damascus.
Detail of a roundel miniature of St Paul on the Road to Damascus, from a calendar page for January, Add MS 35313, f. 1v
- Sarah J Biggs