Live like an eleventh-century prince
Have you ever wondered what it must have been like to have been a prince one thousand years ago? Would you have eaten off of silver plates? How many swords would you have had? Which horse would be your favourite, and which saint? Who would your friends be? Would you miss your grandmother? Which side would you be on in court intrigues? What kind of jewellery would you wear? We can answer some of these questions â€” at least in the case of one prince â€” from a document held in the British Library, dated 25 June 1014.
Detail of worldly treasures which match the items mentioned in Ã†thelstanâ€™s will, from a Psalter made in Winchester, mid-11th century: Cotton MS Tiberius C VI, f. 10v
That document is the will of Ã†thelstan, the eldest son of King Ã†thelred â€˜the Unreadyâ€™ of England (d. 1016). Inconveniently, Ã†thelstan died in 1014, in the middle of an invasion by Scandinavian forces (vikings). Nevertheless, shortly before he died, Ã†thelstan had time to divide his possessions, giving us a glimpse into elite English society.
Will of Ã†thelstan, 25 June 1014: Stowe Ch 37
In Ã†thelstanâ€™s will, he bequeathed some of his most precious possessions. These included extensive lands in 10 different shires, several horses, and various objects made out of precious metals. A full translation of the will is available here.
- Swords/blades: 12
- Horses: 7
- Cups/bowls: 2
- Shields: 2
- Arm ring: 1
- Drinking horn: 1
- Trumpet: 1
- Coat of mail: 1
- Golden belt: 1
- Cross: 1...
â€˜To my brother Edmund, the sword that King Offa hadâ€™: detail of Stowe Ch 37
The many swords described in Ã†thelstanâ€™s will have attracted particular attention. Swords were some of the most expensive weapons available in early medieval Europe. Ã†thelstanâ€™s will indicates how many and what kind of swords an early medieval war leader might have needed. Several of the swords are described as â€˜ornamentedâ€™, â€˜with a silver hiltâ€™, or â€˜damaged.â€™ There is a sword with â€˜a silver hilt that Wulfric wroughtâ€™ and there is another 'on which a hand is marked.â€™ There was even one, Ã†thelstan claimed, that had belonged to Offa, the 8th-century king of Mercia. Ã†thelstan gave this sword and another with a â€˜pitted hiltâ€™, as well as many other things, to his brother Edmund, who became heir to the throne after he died.
Detail of a feast, with a drinking horn being filled on the far left-hand side of the image, from a mid-11th -century calendar: Cotton MS Tiberius B V/1, f. 4v
Beyond the swords, shield and chainmail, other items mentioned in the will give us insights into Ã†thelstanâ€™s domestic life. His mealtimes could be glittering affairs, literally: the will mentions a â€˜silver cauldron/basin worth five poundsâ€™, and possibly a silver bowl, in addition to a costly drinking horn. On special occasions, Ã†thelstan perhaps wore his 'golden belt' and arm-ring. He may have dined with his brothers and his â€˜dish-thenâ€™ (steward or seneschal) Ã†lfmaer, who received a roan stallion and a damaged sword in the will. Ã†thelstan might also have shared meals with his retainers and allies including Ã†thelweard the Stammerer, Godwine the Driveller and Ã†lfric of Barton. Other members of Ã†thelstanâ€™s entourage mentioned in the will include a priest, a â€˜staghuntsmanâ€™ and, perhaps unsurprisingly, a â€˜sword-furbisher.â€™
Drawing that might depict Queen Ã†lfthryth among a crowd, from the Benedictional of Ã†thelwold, made c. 971-984: Add MS 49598, f. 118v
The will even offers glimpses of the princeâ€™s childhood, since Ã†thelstan mentions two women who were important in his upbringing. The first was his foster mother, Ã†lfswith, to whom he gave land worth 250 mancuses of gold â€˜because she greatly deserved itâ€™. Royal and noble children in early medieval England were frequently sent to other families to be brought up or were cared for by foster mothers. The second major influence on Ã†thelstanâ€™s childhood was apparently his grandmother, Ã†lfthryth (d. 999 x 1001), wife of King Edgar (d. 975) and mother of Ã†thelred: she â€˜brought me [Ã†thelstan] upâ€™, according to the text of the will. Indeed, the first time Ã†thelstan appeared in the surviving written record, he was listed with his grandmother as witnesses of a charter for Abingdon Abbey. Ã†lfthryth must have been an important influence on Ã†thelstan throughout his life. Many of the churches to which he made donations in his will she had also patronised, such as Ely Abbey. Touchingly, Ã†lfthryth is the last person mentioned in the will: Ã†thelstan asserts that all his gifts to God and Godâ€™s church are done for the soul of his father, his own soul and that of Ã†lfthryth.
Ã†thelstan (spelled Ã†Ã¾elstan) first appears in the historical record in this charter from 993: Cotton MS Augustus II 38
Ã†thelstanâ€™s will also records charitable donations he made for the sake of his soul at the end of his life. These pious donations offer stark reminders of how difficult life could be for those outside the elite in 11th-century England: the will makes provisions for 100 paupers to be fed on the feast day of St Ã†thelthryth of Ely and begins by freeing all of the penal slaves owned by Ã†thelstan. Penal slaves were people who were made slaves because they had been convicted of a crime. The will does not mention the hereditary slaves who worked on Ã†thelstanâ€™s extensive estates or ran his household.
At least two copies of this will were made, for safekeeping, and were sent to Winchester and Christ Church Canterbury. The copies were written on the same piece of parchment, and the word â€˜CYROGRAPHUMâ€™ was written along the middle. The parchment was then divided along that word, so that the copies could be verified by lining up the two halves and matching the letters. Ã†thelstan perhaps took these precautions because he was anxious that the provisions might not be respected. Several times, he emphasized that these bequests were made with his fatherâ€™s permission.
One copy of the will, the upper portion of the cyrograph, can be viewed on our Digitised Manuscripts site. You can also learn more about Ã†thelstan, Ã†lfrthryth and Ã†thelred at the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms exhibition, which will be on display at the British Library between 19 October 2018 and 19 February 2019. Don't forget the prince who died over 1000 years ago, who loved swords, horses and his grandmother.
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