Some of the most interesting texts in the British Libraryâs collections have deceptively unassuming appearances. For example, this fragile piece of parchment is the closest equivalent of the Vogue wardrobe for early medieval England. Written in Old English, it is one of the earliest wills which survive from England in the name of a woman only. It details bequests made by a noblewoman called WynflĂŠd sometime before the late 10th or early 11th century, and it describes her wardrobe as well as her estates, slaves, metalwork, livestock and familial relationships.
Will of WynflĂŠd, England, late 10th or early 11th century: Cotton Ch VIII 38
We canât be sure as to WynflĂŠd's exact identity. One of King Edgarâs grandmothers was called WynflĂŠd, but this will could pertain to someone else with the same name. What we do know is that our Wynflaed was a widow, and that she had a daughter called ĂthelflĂŠd and a son called Eadmer. We also know that she was rich. Her will mentions several estates, bands of tamed and untamed horses, slaves, many coins, livestock, items in gold and silver, and even books (annoyingly for us, no further information is given). The compiler of her will described some of the other items, such as WynflĂŠd's âwooden cups decorated with dotsâ and her âred tentâ. Anglo-Saxon nobles often travelled around â WynflĂŠd may have had to travel to manage her estates â and they stayed in tents when doing so. The Durham Collectar, for instance (Durham Cathedral Library MS A.IV.19), mentions that some of its text was written before tierce (around 9 a.m.) on Wednesday, 10 August 10, âfor Ălfsige the bishop [of the community of St Cuthbert] in his tentâ while he was travelling in Dorset.
WynflĂŠd's will also gives details about her attire, from her engraved bracelet to linen gowns to caps and headbands. Such detailed descriptions of clothes are relatively unusual in Old English texts. A particularly striking item among WynflĂŠdâs clothes is a âtwilibrocenan cyrtelâ. This garment has been alternatively interpreted as a âbadger-skin dressâ, an embroidered dress or even a dress that was only worn twice. Gale Owen-Crocker and Kate Thomas have already discussed WynflĂŠdâs clothes, if youâd like to learn more.
A badger? Detail of a decoration around a flaw in parchment, from the Tollemache Orosius, England (Winchester?), late 9th or early 10th century: Add MS 47967, f. 62v
WynflĂŠd may have taken religious vows towards the end of her life, but that does not seem to have impeded her fashion sense. Her will mentions a âholy veilâ and at the beginning it focuses on her donations to an unspecified church. This church seems to have housed women, since the first part of the will also specifies bequests to âslaves of Godâ there with female names such as Ceolthryth, Othelbriht and Elsa. At least one of these names appears again towards the end of the will as the recipient of some of the finer pieces in WynflĂŠd's wardrobe: Ceolthryth was to receive âwhichever she prefers of her black tunics and her best holy veil and best headbandâ (translated by D. Whitelock, Anglo-Saxon Wills, Cambridge, 1930, p. 15). Nor were these the only fashionable religious women or nuns in late 10th-century England, if later stories about St Edith are to be believed.
A holy veil? An angel presents Queen Emma with a veil, from the New Minster Liber Vitae: Stowe MS 944, f. 6r
WynflĂŠdâs will highlights another important aspect of fashion history: who made the clothes. WynflĂŠd not only bequeathed her clothes to her relatives, but she also bequeathed the people who made them. To Eadgifu (possibly her granddaughter), she gave âa woman-weaver and a seamstress, the one [also] called Eadgifu, the other called Ăthelgifuâ. One gets the impression that her granddaughter Eadgifu was a favourite: she also received the âbest bed-curtainâ, âbest dun tunicâ, best cloak and an âold filigree broochâ, among other objects.
Eadgifu the weaver and Ăthelgifu the seamstress were not so lucky. While WynflĂŠd freed some of her slaves in her will, these two may have been condemned by their skill. They are two of only four slaves whose professions are specified in the will, the others being a wright and a cook called Ălfsige. WynflĂŠd was â and is â not alone in exploiting garment makers. To this day, the fashion industry has an uncomfortably close relationship with exploitation and poor labour conditions in many parts of the world.
Detail of the names of Eadgifu (Edgyfu) and Ăthelgifu (ĂĂŸelyfu): Cotton Ch VIII 38
Although Cotton Ch VIII 38 is a copy of the original will, it shows signs of how such a document might have been used. It is a single sheet, folded carefully in half, then lengthways, and then again into thirds, as if it has been used and been put away for safe keeping. The interlinear additions to the text are also intriguing: as these are meaningful pieces of text, rather than occasional words, they are clearly not just the result of scribal error, but were intended as clarifications, or to add extra information. For example, when Wynflaed bequeaths her cloak, an extra word is added to specify which one: it is 'hyre beteran mentel' (her better cloak). Many of these additions are concerned with what would happen to Wynflaed's slaves. The will specifies that 'at Faccombe Eadhelm and Man and Johanna and Sprow and his wife âŠ and Gersand and Snel are to be freed,' with Sprow and his wife added between the lines; while elsewhere, where 'aelfferes dohtor' (Aelffere's daughter) is given to Aethelflaed, someone has added 'ĂŸa geonran' (the younger) between the lines, specifying which one of his daughters was to be Aethelflaed's slave. Needless to say, these additions had serious consequences for the futures of Sprow, his wife, and of Aelffere's daughter.
Detail of folds and interlinear additions: Cotton Ch VIII 38
The British Library's major exhibition, Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms: Art, Word, War, opens on 19 October 2018: tickets and further details are available here.
Alison Hudson and Kate Thomas
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