In addition to containing the daily cycle of prayer, Books of Hours sometimes include magical spells or incantations, reflecting their lay owners' concerns over physical and spiritual dangers. Stowe MS 16, a Book of Hours produced in London shortly before 1410, is an interesting example. This manuscript is mainly known to scholars because it includes a miniature of the Annunciation that has been attributed to Herman Scheerre (fl. c. 1388âc. 1422), a Flemish or German illuminator who was one of the most influential artists in early 15th-century England.
The Hours of the Virgin Mary (London, c. 1410): Stowe MS 16, f. 9r
But another remarkable feature of Stowe MS 16 has so far gone unnoticed: a 15th-century owner â perhaps âGeorge Rotherhamâ, who inscribed his name on a flyleaf â added four circular diagrams that, as their accompanying inscriptions explain, represent âsealsâ that offered supernatural protection. The first is referred to as the âSeal of Solomonâ, alluding to an ancient legend according to which the biblical King Solomon owned a seal ring with an engraved hexagram or pentagram, that enabled him to command demons. It formed the basis for a tradition of pseudo-Solomonic seals that flourished during the later Middle Ages. The inscription that accompanies the seal in Stowe MS 16 instructs the reader to use it as an amulet in battle: âHoc signum Salamonis qui super se portaverit nec manu in bello erit captusâ (âWhosoever will carry the seal of Solomon on themselves will not be captured in battleâ).
The Seal of Solomon: Stowe MS 16, f. 151r
The owner of Stowe MS 16 also added incantations against âseven sistersâ (âseptem sororesâ), fever demons who are named after seven types of fever, followed by three more magical seals that offered protection against enemies, water and fire, and evil. The inscription on the first seal reads: âHoc signum fer [te]cum contra omnes inimicosâ (âCarry this seal with you against all enemiesâ).
Three magical seals: Stowe MS 16, f. 152r
Magical seals were not usually copied into prayer books. Instead, they circulated in medical and magical manuscripts. For example, one 15th-century English medical manuscript (Royal MS 17 B XLVIII) contains a seal for thunderstorms: âQuando audieris tonitruum respice hoc signum et liberaberis; In nomine patrisâ (âWhen you hear thunder, look at this seal and you will be freed â In the name of the Fatherâ).
A seal against lightning (England, 15th century): Royal MS 17 B XLVIII, f. 1r
Magical seals were also copied onto separate parchment leaves that could be worn as amulets. One such leaf, now bound into Add MS 36674, contains on one side a so-called âHeavenly Letterâ. This letter, invoking the divine names of God, was purportedly sent by Pope Leo III to Charlemagne in order to protect him in battle. On the leafâs other side, thirty-two seals have been drawn in red ink. These complement the Heavenly Letterâs purpose since they claim to protect their user against imprisonment, wounds and death in battle.
Thirty-two magical seals (England, late 16th centuryâearly 17th century): Add MS 36674, f. 111r
Another separate amulet leaf with magical seals is now bound into Add MS 15505. The amulet, produced in early 16th-century Italy, features a large circular diagram with ten magical seals inside it. At its centre is a seal with a âcross crossletâ and the magical formula âAGLAâ. It is circumscribed with the name âAntoniusâ â probably referring to St Anthony of Egypt, who was often invoked against the plague â and is surrounded by eight more seals that provide protection against demons, enemies, evil and misfortune. The seals contain magical inscriptions such as âSATOR AREPOâ, a popular magical formula that had been used on amulets for centuries (another example is found in Egerton MS 821). Each seal is flanked by the Greek letters âChiâ and âRhoâ, representing the name of Christ.
Nine magical seals (Italy, early 16th century): Add MS 15505, f. 22r
Magical seals were also copied onto amulet rolls. On one 15th-century English roll (Harley Roll T 11), they have been combined with devotional items such as the âMeasure of the Side Woundâ. This lozenge-shaped image purports to represent the true size of the wound in Christâs side, inflicted when the Roman soldier Longinus pierced him with his lance. The accompanying text claims that when pregnant women wear the image on their bodies during childbirth, it will protect both them and their children. This suggests that the amulet roll may have been used as a birthing girdle, making particularly relevant its seals for staunching bleeding wounds and against sudden death (without having received the last rites).
Magical seals and the Measure of the Side Wound (England, 15th century): Harley Roll T 11, f. 1r
Magical seals for staunching bleeding wounds and against sudden death: Harley Roll T 11, f. 2r
No less than sixty-three magical seals were copied onto a 17th-century English amulet roll (Add MS 25311). Many are aimed against evil spirits, but others against material and physical dangers: for example, it includes seals against venomous snakebites and poverty. The roll may have served as a multi-purpose amulet, or as a model from which single seals were copied onto smaller amulets.
Magical seals against evil spirits [1st column, 1st to 3rd rows], venomous snakes [2nd column, 5th row] and poverty [3rd column, 5th row] (England, 17th century): Add MS 25311
The owner of Stowe MS 16 who added the four magical seals to the manuscript probably copied them from the sort of medical or magical manuscripts that are shown here. In doing so, they evidently wanted to give their Book of Hours protective properties so that, in carrying it with them for their daily prayers, it would function equally as an amulet.