Endangered archives blog

News about the projects saving vulnerable material from around the world

29 September 2023

Preserving History: Manaki Brothers' Archival Collection Declared Cultural Heritage in North Macedonia

In a landmark decision, the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia, on 30 August 2023, bestowed a prestigious honour upon the Brothers Manaki-Bitola Collection (1853-1964). This collection was declared a cultural heritage of particular significance. It comprises the photographic legacy of the Balkan's first filmmakers Yanaki and Milton Manaki and is located amongst the stacks of the State Archive of the Republic of North Macedonia's Bitola Department.

Portrait of Manaki brothers, standing in three piece suits and wearing straw boater hats

This announcement marks the culmination of work that began in May 2022, initially by the leadership team at the State Archive and then continued by a dedicated team at the Bitola Department. It has involved contacting key stakeholders responsible for the preservation, organisation, and processing of the collection.

The importance of this archival material cannot be overstated. It contains the complete photographic material as well as personal documentation of the Manaki family, which has never undergone the process of full digitisation. The photographic material contains more than 7,000 glass negatives, over 3000 rolls and sheet films and in excess of 10,000 original prints, produced at the end of the 19th century up until Milton’s death in 1964. The photographic collection is one of the most extensive covering the Balkans.

With this important decision by the Government, the "Brothers Manaki" collection carves its place in history as the first national case of declaring archival material as cultural heritage. This recognition heralds a new era in how we evaluate and cherish archival and cultural activities associated with the Manaki Brothers' legacy. It reinforces our commitment to preserving the "Brothers Manaki" and all its contents, ensuring the allocation of resources for its proper preservation, organization, digitisation, research, and presentation.

This recognition not only honours the legacy of the Manaki Brothers but also underscores the nation's dedication to preserving and celebrating its cultural heritage. It sets a precedent for acknowledging the cultural significance of archival collections and emphasises their central role in safeguarding and sharing a nation's heritage.

Notification supplied by the EAP1470 team.

18 September 2023

The call for applications to Round 19 is now open

We are accepting applications for grants to be awarded next April, for projects that will start from the summer of 2024. Applications are made via the EAP portal and the deadline for preliminary applications is Monday 13 November. Applicants should consult the newly updated Guide for Applicants on our website for information on how to make the strongest application. In addition we are holding two webinars (in English) on Wednesday 27 September to accommodate different time zones. We will give an overview of the process, followed by a Q&A session. Register in advance using the following links:

Morning session (11 am)

Afternoon session (3 pm)

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the webinar.

As always, we look forward to receiving a wide range of applications from historians, archivists and others, as we enter the 20th year of EAP.

Row of bound volumes all with brown paper covers

24 August 2023

Stampa Migrante: a Window on Multi-Lingual Egypt

ستامبا ميجرانتى : نافذة على مصر المتعددة اللغات

Stampa Migrante: una finestra sull’Egitto multilingue

So much unfolding on a single page. I wandered and wondered in the past just by leafing through the holdings of the Centro Archeologico Italiano (CAI) in Cairo, managed by the Italian Institute of Culture (IIC) in the same city. In a relatively good state yet vulnerable, this historical collection of daily newspapers published in Italian in the late 19th and 20th centuries in Egypt provides an exceptional window on the history of Italian migration to and through Egypt as well as the larger migratory movements through the Mediterranean and the Middle East of the time. A mix of political convenience and economic opportunity made nineteenth-century Egypt attractive to underemployed Italian labour and others (Gorman, 141).

هكذا يتكشف الكثير في صفحة واحدة فقط. بينما كنت اتصفح مقتنيات المركز الإيطالي للآثار في القاهرة، والذي يديره المعهد الثقافى الإيطالي  بالمدينة نفسها, حيث من الممكن التجول بين الماضى و التسأل عنه و اكتشاف الكثير عن خباياه, وجدت هذه  المجموعة التاريخية من الصحف اليومية التي نُشرت باللغة الإيطالية في أواخر القرنين التاسع عشر والعشرون في مصر.  هي في حالة جيدة نسبيًا ولكنها معرّضة للتدهور.  وتمثل هذه المجموعة نافذة استثنائية على تاريخ الهجرة الإيطالية إلى مصر وعبرها بالإضافة إلى حركات الهجرة الأكبر عبر البحر المتوسط والشرق الأوسط في ذلك الوقت. مزيج من الفرص السياسية والاقتصادية جعل من  مصر في القرن التاسع عشر بلداً جاذباً للعمالة الإيطالية وغيرها التي تبحث عن فرص عمل

Così tanto si dispiega in una sola pagina. Sfogliando i volumi in possesso del Centro Archeologico Italiano (CAI) del Cairo, gestito dall’Istituto Italiano di Cultura (IIC) con sede nella stessa città, è possibile girovagare nel passato e scoprirvi meraviglie. Conservata in uno stato relativamente buono, anche se di vulnerabilità, questa collezione storica dei quotidiani pubblicati in lingua italiana nel tardo Ottocento e inizio Novecento in Egitto costituisce una finestra eccezionale da cui osservare la storia della migrazione italiana verso e attraverso l’Egitto nonché dei movimenti migratori nel Mediterraneo e nel Medio Oriente del tempo. La presenza di un insieme di opportunità politiche ed economiche rese l’Egitto del diciannovesimo secolo particolarmente attraente per lavoratori italiani e di altre nazionalità che erano alla ricerca di impiego (Gorman, 141).

Lucia Carminati reading a large bound volume of newspapers

Lucia Carminati reading (Photograph taken by Sebastiano Mussi, 2015)

Entrance with sign "Centro Archeologico Italiano"

Entrance of CAI in Cairo (Photograph taken by Raffaele Pentangelo, IIC)

I was immediately struck by the richness of these sources when I encountered them for the first time in 2015-2016, following the generous lead of then-fellow PhD adventurer Joseph Viscomi- during doctoral fieldwork in Egypt and across Europe. I kept mulling over ways to preserve and make this collection available beyond Egypt’s fickle attitude towards academic researchers, capricious access rules to the CAI holdings, and unpredictable travel restrictions. The discovery of the British Library’s Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) came at a fortuitous if yet chaotic time, as I transitioned from Texas to Norway. I quickly found out that similar efforts had already been under way by Helwan University’s Dr. Wafaa El Beih and Dante Campioni of Alexbank, both of whom I thank.

أدهشني على الفور ثراء هذه المصادر عندما قابلتها أول مرة بين عامي ٢٠١٥ و٢٠١٦, بناء على النصائح السخية من زميلى طالب الدكتوراه آنذاك جوزيف فيسكومي أثناء بحثي للدكتوراه في مصر و أوروبا. ظللت أفكر في طرق للحفاظ على هذه المجموعة وإتاحتها بما يتجاوز موقف مصر المتقلب تجاه الباحثين الأكاديميين و بما يتجاوز قواعد الوصول المتقلبة إلى المقتنيات وبما يتجاوز قيود السفر غير المتوقعة.  جاء اكتشاف برنامج المحفوظات المهددة بالانقراض التابع للمكتبة البريطانية في وقت مناسب وإن كانت الظروف مضطربة الى حد ما, حيث كانت فترة انتقالى  من تكساس إلى النرويج. سرعان ما اكتشفت أن جهود مماثلة قد بذلت بالفعل من قبل الدكتورة وفاء البيه من جامعة حلوان ودانتي كامبيوني من بنك الإسكندرية واوجه لهما جزيل الشكر

La ricchezza di queste fonti colpisce immediatamente. Ne fui catturata per la prima volta nel 2015-2016, seguendo il generoso consiglio dell’allora compagno di avventure e collega dottorando Joseph Viscomi, durante il mio lavoro di ricerca sul campo in Egitto e in Europa per la preparazione della tesi di dottorato. In seguito, ho continuato a rimuginare su come poter conservare e rendere disponibile questa collezione a prescindere dall'atteggiamento volubile dell’Egitto nei confronti dei ricercatori accademici, dalle mutevoli regole di accesso ai materiali CAI e dalle imprevedibili restrizioni di viaggio. La scoperta dell’Endangered Archives Programme (EAP) della British Library è capitata in un momento fortuito anche se caotico durante la mia transizione accademica dal Texas alla Norvegia. Ho subito scoperto che sforzi simili erano già in corso da parte di Wafaa El Beih dell'Università di Helwan e di Dante Campioni di Alexbank e ringrazio entrambi.

Image of library shelves with a table containing large bound newspapers

A pile of bound newspapers, showing their spines and titles

IIC materials (Photographs taken by Raffaele Pentangelo, IIC)

The CAI/IIC collection of daily newspapers that EAP1474 “Stampa Migrante” will finish to digitise and broadcast by September 30, 2023, are the following:

Il Messaggero Egiziano (the issues tentatively comprised between July 1926 and March 1930), born as Lloyd egiziano in 1875 in Alexandria, then morphed into Messaggiere or Messaggere; L’Imparziale (March 1892 - December 1929), founded in 1892 in Cairo; Il Giornale d’Oriente-L’Imparziale of Cairo (April 1930 - June 1940); Il Giornale d’Oriente-Messaggero Egiziano in Alexandria (July 1930 - June 1940). Thanks to EAP, more than 70,000 pages will go live instead of gathering dust in locked cabinets.   

مجموعة الصحف اليومية التي سينتهي  المشروع ستامپا ميجرانتي -الصحافة المهاجرة- من تحويلها رقميًا وبثها عبر الإنترنت بحلول ٣٠ سبتمبر ٢٠٢٣ هي كالتالي

تقريبا بين يوليو ١٩٢٦ ومارس ١٩٣٠, تأسست في عام ١٨٧٥ في الإسكندرية  Il Messaggero Egiziano

تقريبا بين مارس ١٨٩٢ وديسمبر ١٩٢٩, تأسست عام ١٨٩٢ في القاهرة   L’Imparziale 

تقريبا بين أبريل ١٩٣٠ ويونيو ١٩٤٠ في القاهرة   Il Giornale d’Oriente-L’Imparziale

تقريبا بين يوليو ١٩٣٠ ويونيو ١٩٤٠ في الإسكندرية   Il Giornale d’Oriente-Messaggero Egiziano

بفضل هذا البرنامج سيتم نشر أكثر من ٦٠٠٠٠ صفحة بدلاً من تجمع الغبارعليها في الخزانات المغلقة

La collezione di quotidiani del CAI/IIC che il progetto EAP1474 “Stampa Migrante” finirà di digitalizzare e diffondere entro il 30 settembre 2023 comprende i seguenti: Il Messaggero Egiziano (i numeri contenuti provvisoriamente tra il luglio 1926 e il marzo 1930), nato come Lloyd egiziano nel 1875 ad Alessandria d’Egitto, poi trasformatosi in Messaggiere o Messaggere; L’Imparziale (marzo 1892 - dicembre 1929), fondato nel 1892 al Cairo; Il Giornale d'Oriente-L'Imparziale del Cairo (aprile 1930 - giugno 1940); Il Giornale d’Oriente-Messaggero Egiziano di Alessandria (luglio 1930 - giugno 1940). Grazie al programma EAP, più di 70.000 pagine acquisiranno nuova vita invece di continuare ad impolverarsi in armadi chiusi.

Bound volume of newspapers with blue marble-effect cover

Bound volume of newspapers with pink marble-effect cover

More IIC materials (Photographs taken by Raffaele Pentangelo, IIC)

It may be confusing to determine whether the collection is made of three or four newspapers. This is due to the fact that, in April 1930, L’Imparziale and Il Messaggero Egiziano merged under the name of Il Giornale d’Oriente. But they continued to coexist in two different editions, respectively based in Cairo and in Alexandria, apparently so that the Italian community in each city could have its own paper (Petricioli, 293; Marchi 2010, 115). But why did the Alexandrine and Cairine communities want or need two separate dailies? Here is where questions running deep below the surface of this project burst forth: for whom and by whom was the Italian language press printed at the time? Who was writing it? Who was financing it? What perspectives and biases transpire through its pages? Who was reading it? Why and how were people reading it? Are such Italian-language sources circumscribed to the history of Egypt-bound migration from the Italian peninsula or do they reach much farther away?

قد يكون من المربك تحديد ما إذا كانت المجموعة مكونة من ثلاث أو أربع صحف. هذا يرجع إلى حقيقة أنه في أبريل ١٩٣٠ اندمجت "الميساجيرو" و"ليمپارزيالي" تحت اسم "الجورنال دوريينتي". لكنهم استمروا في التعايش في نسختين مختلفتين في القاهرة والإسكندرية ، على ما يبدو بحيث يمكن للجالية الإيطالية في كل مدينة أن يكون لها صحيفتها الخاصة. ولكن لماذا أرادت جاليات الإسكندرية والقاهرة أو احتاجتا إلى صحيفتين يوميتين منفصلتين؟  هنا حيث تتوارد بعض الأسئلة المُلحّة التي تدور بعمق تحت سطح هذا المشروع: لمن ومن قام بطباعة الصحافة الناطقة باللغة الإيطالية في ذلك الوقت؟ من كان يكتبها؟ من كان يمولها؟ ما هي وجهات النظر والتحيزات التي تظهر من خلال صفحاتها؟ من كان يقرأها؟ لماذا وكيف كان الناس يقرؤونها؟ هل هذه المصادر باللغة الإيطالية مقيدة بتاريخ الهجرة المتجهة إلى مصر من شبه الجزيرة الإيطالية أم أنها تصل إلى أبعد من ذلك؟

Stabilire se la collezione sia composta da tre o quattro giornali può creare confusione. Ciò è dovuto al fatto che, nell’aprile del 1930, L'Imparziale e Il Messaggero Egiziano si fusero sotto il nome di Il Giornale d'Oriente, ma continuarono a coesistere in due edizioni diverse rispettivamente con sede al Cairo e ad Alessandria, a quanto pare perché la comunità italiana di ciascuna città potesse avere il proprio giornale (Petricioli, 293; Marchi 2010, 115). Ma perché la comunità alessandrina e quella cairota volevano o necessitavano di due quotidiani separati? È qui che emergono prepotentemente alcune delle domande che scorrono appena sotto la superficie di questo progetto: per chi e da chi veniva prodotta la stampa in lingua italiana dell’epoca? Chi vi scriveva? Chi la finanziava? Quali prospettive e pregiudizi trasparivano dalle sue pagine? Chi la leggeva? Perché e come la si leggeva? Queste fonti in lingua italiana sono circoscritte alla storia della migrazione verso l’Egitto dalla penisola italiana o hanno il potenziale di spaziare oltre?

Cover page of one of the newspapers

An advertisement that takes up the entire page, showing mainly clocks

Example pages from the newspapers (Photographs taken by Irina Schmid, AUC)

The potential of the CAI/IIC collection goes beyond Egypt’s strictly defined “Italian” community to embrace at the very least all those who could speak and read Italian. Sure, as I suggest in my book Seeking Bread and Fortune in Port Said: Labor Migration and the Making of the Suez Canal, 1859-1906, Egypt’s foreign-language newspapers tended to divide the public along linguistic and political lines. Retracing their history is useful to understand the process by which immigrant communities tried to settle down, imagine their identity, shape their boundaries. Yet, a study of the contents of these very same newspapers reveals how deeply fractured these foreign communities were along -for example- fault lines dictated by class and education (Gorman, 146). Even beyond the communities they apparently targeted, these mono-lingual newspapers are windows into a multi-lingual world. More research on language politics and multi-lingual practices is necessary and ongoing, as in Olga Verlato’s exciting dissertation work. I will only provide one example here: one third of Alexandria’s readers of Il Giornale d’Oriente were Maltese and Greeks; two thirds of its readers in Port Said were originally from Malta (Petricioli, 297).

يتجاوز تأثير مجموعة الصحف اليومية الجالية "الإيطالية" في مصر ليضم على الأقل كل أولئك الذين يمكنهم التحدث باللغة الإيطالية وقراءتها. بالتأكيد ، كما اقترحت في كتابي البحث عن الخبز والثروة في بورسعيد: هجرة العمالة وصناعة قناة السويس ١٨٥٩ـ١٩٠٦، تميل الصحف المصرية الصادرة باللغات الأجنبية إلى تقسيم الجمهور على أسس لغوية وسياسية . يعد تتبع تاريخهم مفيدًا لفهم كيف حاولت جاليات المهاجرين الاستقرار وتخيل هويتهم وتشكيل حدودهم. ومع ذلك  تكشف دراسة لمحتويات هذه الصحف نفسها عن مدى انقسام هذه الجاليات الأجنبية بعمق على طول خطوط الطبقة الاجتماعية والتعليم . حتى خارج الجاليات التي استهدفتها على ما يبدو فإن هذه الصحف أحادية اللغة هي نوافذ في عالم متعدد اللغات. المزيد من البحث حول سياسة اللغة والممارسات متعددة اللغات ضروري ومستمر كما هو الحال في بحث الدكتوراه لأولغا فيرلاتو. سأقدم هنا مثالاً واحداً فقط: ثلث قراء الإسكندرية للجورنال دوريينتي كانوا مالطيين ويونانيين. ثلثى قراءها في بورسعيد كانوا من اصول مالطيه

Il potenziale della collezione del CAI/IIC va oltre la comunità “italiana” d’Egitto. Come minimo, arriva a includere tutti coloro che potevano parlare e leggere l’italiano. È vero che, come suggerisco nel mio libro Seeking Bread and Fortune in Port Said: Labor Migration and the Making of the Suez Canal, 1859-1906, i giornali egiziani in lingua straniera tendevano a dividere il pubblico lungo linee linguistiche e politiche. Ripercorrere la loro storia è quindi utile per comprendere il processo attraverso il quale le comunità di immigrati cercarono di insediarsi, di immaginare la propria identità, di delineare i propri confini. Tuttavia, uno studio dei contenuti di questi stessi giornali rivela quanto queste comunità straniere fossero profondamente fratturate, ad esempio lungo linee di faglia dettate dall’appartenenza di classe e dal livello di istruzione (Gorman, 146). Anche al di là delle comunità a cui apparentemente si rivolgevano, questi giornali monolingui sono finestre su un mondo multilingue. Sono necessarie e in corso ulteriori ricerche sulle politiche linguistiche e sulle pratiche multilinguistiche, come nell'appassionante lavoro di dottorato di Olga Verlato. Mi limito qui a fornire un esempio: un terzo dei lettori alessandrini de Il Giornale d'Oriente erano maltesi e greci; due terzi dei lettori dello stesso in Port Said erano originari di Malta (Petricioli, 297).

Two suited men wearing fez hats, walk along a sandy beach

Ahmed Wali Al Din Series - Two men walking on the beach, 1937 [ref931]  (Copyright Al Akkasah)

In sum, EAP1474 provides a privileged yet accessible gateway into underexplored aspects of the history of modern Egypt, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. But it also opens up a broad-ranging conversation on the ways in which we study the history of migration and the history of the press. As any archive, it houses and excludes; it has its cracks and silences. It will need yet other ideas and resources to complete its gaps by retrieving missing issues from the public library of Alexandria; Italian libraries and archives; even private collections. It will have to follow in the steps of the experts who have pioneered this field at Transfopress, at the ΕΛΙΑ archives, and at the Centre d’Etudes Alexandrines, now looking up from Egypt’s francophone press to embrace the multiple shapes of the Mediterranean’s allophone press. That is a welcome and promising new opening.  

باختصار، يوفر هذا المشروع بوابة متميزة ومتاحة في الجوانب الغيرمستكشفة من تاريخ مصر الحديثة والبحر المتوسط والشرق الأوسط. لكنه يفتح أيضًا نقاشًا واسع النطاق حول الطرق التي ندرس بها تاريخ الهجرة وتاريخ الصحافة. مثل أي أرشيف فإنه يضم ويستبعد ؛ له ثغرات ومناطق صمت. سوف يحتاج إلى أفكار وموارد أخرى لسد الثغرات من خلال استرجاع الأعداد المفقودة من مكتبة الإسكندرية العامة والمكتبات ودور المحفوظات الإيطالية وحتى المجموعات الخاصة. سيتعين اذا اتباع خطوات الخبراء الذين كانوا رائدين في هذا المجال في "ترانسفوپريس" وفي دار المحفوظات ΕΛΙΑ وفي مركز دراسات الإسكندرية ، الذي ينظر الأن الى ابعد من الصحافة الفرنكوفونية في مصر لاحتضان الصحافة  بلغات أجنبية متعددة في البحر الأبيض المتوسط. هذه بداية جديدة واعدة ومرحب بها

In sintesi, il progetto EAP1474 offre un punto d’accesso privilegiato ma accessibile ad aspetti poco esplorati della storia dell’Egitto moderno, del Mediterraneo e del Medio Oriente. Tuttavia, il progetto apre anche una conversazione di ampio respiro sui modi in cui studiamo la storia delle migrazioni e la storia della stampa. Come ogni archivio, ospita ed esclude; ha le sue crepe e i suoi silenzi. Avrà bisogno di altre idee e risorse per completare le sue lacune, recuperando i numeri mancanti dalla collezione della biblioteca pubblica di Alessandria, dalle biblioteche e dagli archivi italiani e persino da collezioni private. Dovrà seguire le orme degli esperti che hanno aperto la strada con Transfopress, con gli archivi ΕΛΙΑ e del Centre d'Etudes Alexandrines, dove ora si solleva lo sguardo oltre la stampa francofona dell’Egitto per abbracciare le molteplici forme della stampa allofona del Mediterraneo: una promettente e benvenuta apertura.

A man sits outside a shop entrance, reading a newspaper

Today’s Egypt: man reading the newspaper in Zamalek (Photograph taken by the author, 2022)

I have discussed a few initial findings (in Italian) in the context of a conference at the Università di Pavia titled “Sguardi incrociati. Editoria e oltremare tra colonialismo e post-colonialismo” (9 June 2023).

لقد شاركت بعض الاعتبارات الأولية (بالإيطالية) خلال مؤتمر في جامعة بافيا بعنوان "النظرات المتقاطعة. النشر وما وراء البحار بين الاستعمار وما بعد الاستعمار" (9 يونيو 2023).

Ho condiviso alcune considerazioni iniziali (in italiano) durante una conferenza all’Università di Pavia dal titolo“Sguardi incrociati. Editoria e oltremare tra colonialismo e post-colonialismo” (9 giugno 2023).

For offering support and expertise throughout the project, I want to thank:

:على تقديم دعمهم ومشاركة خبراتهم أثناء المشروع, أشكر

Per aver offerto il loro sostegno e condiviso le loro competenze durante il progetto, ringrazio:

Atef Khalil; Francesca Biancani, Alessandra Marchi, Costantino Paonessa, Teresa Pepe. Grazie a Davide Scalmani; Raffaele Pentangelo; Isabella Bommarito (IIC); Mohamed Abdel Rehim, Heba Sayed, Irina Schmid, Stephen Urgola (AUC); Ingrid Stange Ytterstad (UiO); Alexbank; Helwan university; Marie-Delphine Martèlliere (CeAlex).

Written by Dr Lucia Carminati (University of Oslo), Project Lead for EAP1474

A short bibliography on this topic includes:  

ببليوغرافيا موجزة:

Offro di seguito una breve bibliografia sull’argomento: 

ʻAbduh, Ibrāhīm. Taṭawwur al-ṣiḥāfah al-Miṣrīyah, 1798-1981. Cairo: Muʼassasat Sijill al-ʻArab, 1982.

Baldinetti, Anna. Orientalismo e colonialismo: la ricerca di consenso in Egitto per l’impresa di Libia. Roma: Istituto per l’Oriente C.A. Nallino, 1997.

Bigiavi, Edoardo D. Noi e l’Egitto. Livorno: Arti Grafiche S. Belforte E C., 1911.

Briani, Vittorio. Italiani in Egitto. Roma: Istituto poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1982.

Danovaro, G. B. L’Égypte à l’aurore du XXème siècle. Alexandrie: J.C. Lagoudakis, 1901.

Degli Oddi in Società Dante Alighieri. Calendario Nazionale Della Società Dante Alighieri. Firenze: R. Bemporad e Figlio, 1904.

Empereur, J.-Y., and Marie-Delphine Martellière, eds. Presses allophones de Méditerranée. Etudes alexandrines. Alexandrie: Centre d’études alexandrines, 2017.

Gorman, Anthony. “The Italians of Egypt: Return to Diaspora.” In Diasporas of the Modern Middle East: Contextualising Community, by Anthony Gorman and Sossie Kasbarian, 138–70. Edinburgh: University Press, 2015.

Marchi, Alessandra. “La presse d’expression italienne en Égypte, de 1845 à 1950.” Rivista dell’Istituto di Storia dell’Europa Mediterranea, no. 5 (2010): 91–125.

———. “La presse italophone d’Egypte. Un long siècle d’histoire.” In Presses allophones de Méditerranée, edited by J.-Y. Empereur and Marie-Delphine Martellière. Etudes alexandrines. Alexandrie: Centre d’études alexandrines, 2017.

Munier, Jules. La presse en Égypte (1799-1900). Notes et souvenirs. Le Caire: Impr. de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale, 1930.

Petricioli, Marta. Oltre il mito: l’Egitto degli italiani (1917-1947). Milano: Mondadori, 2007.

Rizzitano, Umberto. “Un Secolo Di Giornalismo Italiano in Egitto (1845-1945).” Cahiers d’histoire Égyptienne Série VIII, no. fasc. 2/3 (Avril 1956).

Sadgrove, Philip. “The European Press in Khedive Isma’il’s Egypt (1863-1866): A Neglected FIeld,” In P.C. Sadgrove (Ed.), Printing and Publishing in the Middle East, Journal of Semitic Studies Supplement 24, 2008, 109-128.

Sammarco, Angelo. Gli italiani in Egitto: il contributo italiano nella formazione dell’Egitto moderno. Alessandria D’Egitto: Edizioni del Fascio, 1937.