â€˜I visited this play last night and endured two hours of angry boredomâ€™; â€˜A piece quite without drama and with very little meaningâ€™. This was one audience memberâ€™s summary of the first London production of Waiting for Godot â€“ now regarded as Samuel Beckettâ€™s masterpiece of 20th century drama. This wasnâ€™t, however, the opinion of just any regular audience member â€“ but an examiner for the Lord Chamberlainâ€™s Office, which until 1968 examined and licensed all plays for public performance. Heriot was called on to review the play in production following a letter of complaint from Lady Howitt, who was appalled by the playâ€™s â€˜lavatory referencesâ€™ (f. 8r) and wanted it banned. According to Heriot, audience members â€˜fled, never to returnâ€™ â€“ except for â€˜a sprinkling of young persons in slacks and Marlon Brando pullovers with (according to sex) horsetails or fringesâ€™.
Â© Crown copyright
This is just one of the stories that you can find on the new 20th-century theatre phase of our free educational resource, Discovering Literature, which launched earlier this month. From production photographs of Shelagh Delaneyâ€™s A Taste of Honey to manuscript drafts of Harold Pinter's The Homecoming, the website draws on the British Libraryâ€™s rich literary and theatrical archives to examine the work of 14 key dramatists. Aimed at A Level students, teachers and undergraduates, as well as the general public, this phase of Discovering Literature aims to show the developments and innovations on the British stage over the course of the century â€“ which saw playwrights and practitioners breaking new ground with the subjects and characters they portrayed, and the forms and styles they experimented with.
Weâ€™ve digitised over 100 collection items, from manuscript drafts â€“ offering fascinating glimpses into the creative processes behind the plays â€“ to contemporary production photographs, reports from the Lord Chamberlainâ€™s Office, reviews, posters and programmes, which help to shed light on the playsâ€™ cultural, historical and political contexts.
Highlights online for the first time include:
- Manuscript of A Taste of Honey by Shelagh Delaney, written when she was 19 and typed on her employerâ€™s notepaper, on a borrowed typewriter. You can view the entire original manuscript of the play, and discover the notes and changes made by Delaney and Joan Littlewood, director of Theatre Workshop.
Orphan work licence
- Manuscripts of Harold Pinterâ€™s The Birthday Party, The Homecoming and Betrayal, revealing the playwrightâ€™s experimentation with everyday speech, structure and characterisation
Orphan work licence
- The earliest surviving draft of The Deep Blue Sea by Terence Rattigan, showing the evolution of the playâ€™s plot, characters and subtext.
Â© the Sir Terence Rattigan Charitable Trust
- Script extracts from Oh What a Lovely War, with notes and rewrites by Joan Littlewood that reveal how the show evolved through a process of discussion, improvisation and experimentation by Littlewood, Gerry Raffles and members of the Theatre Workshop cast, in collaboration with Charles Chilton.
Â© Joan Littlewood Estate
- One of several unpublished draft typescripts of The Black Jacobins, C L R Jamesâ€™s 1967 play about the Haitian Revolution.
In addition, we have partnered with institutions including the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas, the Beckett International Foundation at the University of Reading and the J B Priestley Archive at the University of Bradford, to showcase archive material from different collections held in the UK and US. Highlights include:
- John Osborneâ€™s notebook for Look Back in Anger (held by the Harry Ransom Center), featuring title ideas for the play including â€˜My Blood is a Mile Highâ€™, â€˜Farewell to Angerâ€™, â€˜Angry Manâ€™ and â€˜Man in a Rageâ€™ before Osborne hit on the iconic â€˜Look Back in Angerâ€™.
- Letter from a young J B Priestley, sent from the front line during World War One (held by the University of Bradford). Priestleyâ€™s wartime experiences shaped his awareness of class division and injustice, which would greatly influence his political life and his writing in later life.
Â© The Estate of J.B. Priestley. Â© J.B. Priestley Archive, Special Collections, University of Bradford.
- Library book covers defaced by Joe Orton and Kenneth Halliwell (held by Islington Local History Centre) with collaged images of monkeys, tattooed torsos and other surreal imagery â€“ an elaborate literary prank which led to a six-month spell in prison.
Alongside this digitised collection material, youâ€™ll find 40 newly-commissioned articles by leading scholars, critics, directors and curators. Michael Billington explores Oh What a Lovely War and The Birthday Party, Yvonne Brewster reflects on forming Talawa Theatre Company and producing The Black Jacobins, Jeanette Winterson writes on the impact of Shelagh Delaney and A Taste of Honey, and Dan Rebellato considers Look Back in Anger. Weâ€™ve also covered influential theatre practitioners and genres, ranging from Brecht to, more recently, the work of Punchdrunk .
There are new interviews, too. We spoke with Max Stafford-Clark about directing Top Girls and Our Countryâ€™s Good at the Royal Court in the 1980s, and created film interviews with actor Murray Melvin, who reflects on his experiences starring in the original and ground-breaking Theatre Workshop productions of A Taste of Honey and Oh What a Lovely War.
Â© Estate of J V Spinner (born in Walthamstow).
Lastly, teachers should also find our teaching resources area helpful. These downloadable resources offer a range of ideas for how to use the digitised collection items and articles in the classroom.
This new phase of material joins our existing site on 20th century poets and novelists, which went live in May 2016. Discovering Literature first launched in 2014, focussing on Romantic and Victorian literature, and the resource continues to grow, with the ultimate aim being to cover the backbone of English Literature from Beowulf to the present day â€“ and to use our collection to enrich the study and enjoyment of literature.
Explore more: www.bl.uk/20th-century-literature
Katie Adams, Content Manager: Digital Learning