By Eleanor Casson, Archivist and cataloguer of the Andrew Salkey Archive (Deposit 10310), working in collaboration with the Eccles Centre for American Studies and the British Library. This blog is part of a series looking at Salkey‚Äôs literary works and involvement with publishing houses for black writing in Britain.
Andrew Salkey was a man of many hats; a novelist, poet, editor, broadcaster, academic, cultural promoter and activist but, his main passion in his life was writing. Salkey‚Äôs love for writing began as a young boy in Jamaica writing short stories in school exercise books and he continued to write almost daily until his death in 1995. His back-catalogue of literary work boasts a range of adult and children‚Äôs novels, short story collections, poetry collections and long poems. His archive reflects the sheer variety of his literary works and the characteristic political undertones of all of his writing. Salkey is often remembered for his role as a presenter of the BBC‚Äôs seminal programme ‚ÄėCaribbean Voices‚Äô and as a leading figure in the diasporic consciousness of Caribbean artists and intellectuals in the UK through his role as co-founder of the Caribbean Artists Movement (CAM). However, he also had a significant influence on the development of Caribbean literary activism in London during the 1960s and 1970s through his unwavering support of two of the first black publishing houses in London New Beacon Books and Bogle L‚ÄôOuverture (BLP).
Salkey became involved with New Beacon books through his friendship with the founders, John La Rose and Sarah White. Salkey, La Rose and Kamau Brathwaite were the co-founders of CAM; a movement set up for Caribbean artists to get to know each other, and their work, as well as get to know their readers in the Caribbean diaspora. The CAM meetings were the first place La Rose and White sold their own publications. New Beacon Books was founded in 1966 as the UK‚Äôs first black publisher, specialist bookshop and international book distributor. The company was named after a journal, The Beacon, which ran from 1931-1932 in La Rose‚Äôs native Trinidad. New Beacon‚Äôs publishing and distribution was originally ran from La Rose and White‚Äôs flat until they were able to take over premises in Finsbury Park and begin functioning as a book store. The shop became the epicentre of many campaigns, movements and organisations Salkey was involved with including: CAM (1966-1972), and the International Book Fair of Radical Black and Third World Books- organised jointly with BLP and Race Today Publications (1982-1995).
Two of Salkey‚Äôs works were published by New Beacon Books: Georgetown Journal: a Caribbean writer‚Äôs journey from London to Port of Spain to Georgetown, Guyana 1970 (1972) and the second edition of Salkey‚Äôs critically acclaimed first novel, A Quality of Violence (1978). Georgetown Journal is an account of Salkey‚Äôs 1970 trip, with La Rose and Samuel Selvon, to Georgetown. They were guests at events organised by President Forbes Burnham marking the founding of the Co-Operative Republic of Guyana and the Caribbean Writers and Artists Conference. Salkey‚Äôs archive includes a letter from Trevor McDonald relating to the trip offering Salkey advice on who to target for interviews. McDonald was a producer on the Caribbean Service, he suggested President Forbes Burnham, Willy Demas and Clyde Walcott as interesting interviews but signed off his letter to Salkey with ‚ÄėI am leaving the rest to your impeccable judgement‚Äô.
In 1974 Salkey was given a directorship in New Beacon Books with ten shares. Salkey gave New Beacon Books all of the rights and proceeds from Georgetown Journal in a personal effort to ‚Äėstrengthen and consolidate‚Äô the company. Despite this, Salkey was very aware of how financially draining the publishing endeavour was for La Rose. He laments in his diary about how much debt La Rose incurred printing Georgetown Journal, he goes on to say that apart from free manuscripts ‚ÄėI must also find a way to keep them with money or its hard-edged equivalent, in some way‚Äô.
Bogle L‚ÄôOuverture (BLP) was founded in London in 1968 by Guyanese couple Eric and Jessica Huntley. They were friends of La Rose and met Salkey through him. Although the Huntleys were never official members of CAM they were friends with many of its members. BLP was named after the Jamaican hero of the Morant Bay uprising, Paul Bogle, and Haitian revolutionary, Toussaint L‚ÄôOuverture. When the Huntleys opened their bookshop in Ealing, they did so with the help and backing of La Rose. Salkey supported their endeavour in the same way he had with New Beacon Books. He was a Director and shareholder in the company and supported the organisation through the rights and proceeds of his manuscripts. He sent them other Caribbean writers‚Äô works, and he offered them business and literary advice. In his diaries Salkey refers to BLP as ‚Äėour publishing firm‚Äô, he was determined to be an active supporter of Caribbean writing and ‚Äėkeep the faith as a writer with my two Caribbean publishers in Britain‚Äô.
Salkey‚Äôs first novel published by BLP was the children‚Äôs story Joey Tyson. This was the third publication in BLP‚Äôs children‚Äôs series (which also included the writings of Bernard Coard), which was aimed at educating children in Britain about African and Caribbean history, politics and culture. Salkey‚Äôs ability to convey adult issues and themes to children in a way they can understand, and feel an affinity with, made him the perfect author for BLP‚Äôs literary activism. Joey Tyson depicts the exile of a fictional character, Dr Paul Bogle Buxton, from the perspective of a young boy. Dr Buxton, described as ‚Äėthe radical lecturer in African history at the university‚Äô, was a fictional imagining of Walter Rodney and his expulsion from Jamaica in 1968. One review of the novel retained in Salkey‚Äôs archive states: ‚ÄėTeachers looking for something new or something more and who appreciate that literature cannot be divorced from life will recognise the merits of Joey Tyson‚Äô. This work embodies the Huntleys‚Äô and Salkey‚Äôs endeavour to create children‚Äôs literature that educated and rallied the new generation, encouraging grassroots activism and highlighted the counter-hegemony in Britain and the Caribbean. The launch for the novel was held at the Keskidee Centre in Islington, once used regularly for CAM functions, by Jessica Huntley on Salkey‚Äôs 47th birthday, 30 January 1975. In his diary he wrote that this day ‚Äėsymbolised an acceptance of my small contribution to our community, which I never thought I‚Äôd receive‚Äô.
Sources and Further Reading
David Austin Fear of a Black Nation: Race, Sex, and Security in Sixties Montreal, Between the Lines, (Toronto: Canada, 2013)
Edited by Verner D. Mitchell, Cynthia Davis, The Black Arts Movement, (New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2019),
The George Padmore Institute: Why Publish Independently (online) Accessed: 29/03/2020: https://www.georgepadmoreinstitute.org/the-pioneering-years/new-beacon-books-early-history/why-publish-independently