By Stephen Noble, Modern Archives and Manuscripts. You can read more about Mary Shelley on our Discovering Literature website. Material relating to Mary Shelleyâs Frankenstein is now on display in our Treasures Gallery.
In 1818 Mary Shelley and her husband Percy Bysshe Shelley travelled to Italy on the advice of Percyâs doctors, but also to avoid their creditors. Over the next few years they travelled all over the country and it was a time of great creative output for them both. Mary completed the novels Matilda and Valperga, as well as the plays Proserpine and Midas, while Percy wrote his lyrical drama Prometheus Unbound.
These years were also marred by tragedy. In September 1818 their daughter Clara contracted dysentery and died in Venice, where they had gone to find medical attention. Nine months later whilst staying in Rome, their son William died after catching malaria.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley by Richard Rothwell, oil on canvas, NPG 1235 Â©
Reproduced with the kind permission of National Portrait Gallery, London
Despite the traumas the couple endured, they continued to travel and were able to enjoy their experiences in Italy. In January 1821 Mary Shelley wrote to her stepsister Claire Clairmont (Ashley MS 4020), giving her âsome account of my adventuresâ. She had been to Lucca to see a performance of Tommaso Sgricci, a famous improvisational poet. She wrote âSgricci acquitted himself to admiration in the conduct and passion & poetry of his piece. As he went on he altered the argument as it had been delivered to him and wound up the tragedy with a scene both affecting and sublimeâ.
Mary Shelley, letter to Claire Clairmont,  January 1821 (Ashley MS 4020, f2v)
Mary was moved by the performance, and by how âtruly and passionately did his words depict the sceneâ. Others in the party were not so impressed, describing it as âuna cosa mediocraâ, a mediocre thing, but to Mary âit appeared a miracleâ.
In July 1822 tragedy struck again. When returning from a trip to Livorno, where he had visited their friends Leigh Hunt and Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley drowned when his boat sank during a heavy storm in the Gulf of La Spezia. A few weeks later Mary Shelley wrote to her friend Maria Gisborne describing the last months she and Percy had spent together, the events of his death and her immense grief (Ashley MS 5022). âI said in a letter to Peacock, my dear Mrs. Gisborne, that I would send you some account of the last miserable months of my disastrous lifeââŠâThe scene of my existence is closedâ.
Mary Shelley, letter to Maria Gisborne, 15 August 1822 (Ashley MS 5022, f1)
On Monday 8 July, âit was stormy all day, and we did not at all suppose that they could put to seaâ. By Wednesday the weather had improved enough for boats to arrive, which âbrought word that they sailed on Monday, but we did not believe themâ. On Friday 12 July, a letter arrived for Percy from Leigh Hunt in which Hunt wrote âPray write to tell us how you got home, for they say that you had bad weather after you sailed Monday, and we are anxiousâ.
Now she knew something had gone wrong, âThe paper fell from my hands. I trembled all overâ, but she still had hope that the worst had not happened. In Lerici, the nearest town, she was told there had been no reports of any accidents. In Livorno she learned that Percy had been warned about the storm, but set sail anyway.
It was while returning home on Saturday 13 July that Mary learned that part of his boat had been found, washed ashore a few miles away from Lerici. It was not until 19 July, almost two weeks after his death, that Percy Bysshe Shelleyâs body was recovered.
Mary Shelley, letter to Maria Gisborne, 15 August 1822 (Ashley MS 5022, f5)
Mary closes the letter: âWell, here is my story â the last story I shall have to tell. All that might have been bright in my life is now despoiledâ.
Mary Shelley did go on to tell other stories, writing and publishing many novels, short stories, travel books, biographies, articles, and poems. Published in 1930 with the title Absence, Mary Shelley wrote of her grief for her husband (Ashley MS A4023):
âAh! he is gone â and I alone;
How dark and dreary seems the time!
âTis Thus, when the glad sun is flown,
Night rushes oâer the Indian climeâ.
Autograph, fair copy of a poem âAh! he is gone â and I aloneâ by Mary Shelley, undated (Ashley MS A4023)