Our âCats on the Pageâ exhibition features several items on clever and cunning cats. It is probably fair to say that the most famous amongst them is Puss in Boots. He is represented in a charming pop-up book by VojtÄch KubaĆĄta, published in London in 1958 (W.E.d.692)
But did you know that the Dutch cherish an equally clever, cunning and cool cat? His name is Tom Poes, created by Marten Toonder (1912-2005)
Toonder may never have guessed that the doodles of various animal figures he made one day out of sheer boredom would lead to 45 years of newspaper cartoons, cartoon strips, books, films, merchandise, illegal copies of his works, as well as to a statue of his little cat hero in the Rotterdam street where he was born.
The doodles were filed away in a drawer where they lay forgotten, until a Dutch national newspaper, De Telegraaf, asked Toonder to write and illustrate a daily cartoon. Looking for inspiration he found the drawings and decided to give the little cat a try. His wife Phiny Dick, pen name of Afine KornĂ©lie Dik, suggested the name âTom Poesâ and it was she who wrote the first Tom Poes story, Het Geheim der Blauwe Aarde (âThe Secret of the Blue Earthâ), which was published on 16 March 1941. However, she soon handed the whole enterprise over to Marten.
Very soon, during his third adventure (âIn the Magic Gardenâ, 1941) Tom Poes met the brown bear Olie B. Bommel, a âgentleman of standingâ, for whom âmoney is of no importanceâ. Tom Poes and he become inseparable and Bommel became more popular than Tom Poes during their many adventures.
Bas van der Schot compared the couple to Don Quixote and Sancho Panza in Was Tom Poes maar hier (âIf Only Tom Poes Were Hereâ), a homage to Marten Toonder, published in 2006, a year after his death.
Olie B. Bommel may be fantastically wealthy, but he is not very clever, nor is he in touch with the âreal worldâ. It is Tom Poes who has the brains, always keeps his cool, and gets them out of many a pickle. âConjure a trick, Tom Poes!â is another phrase that has entered the Dutch vernacular, which almost literally means the same as Baldrickâs âI have a cunning planâ.
Cover of Marten Toonder,Verzin toch eens een list (Amsterdam, 1973) X.990/6049
De Telegraaf insisted Marten Toonder used the format of the text cartoon by which the text is printed underneath the illustrations, rather than in speech balloons. This format had been invented by the Swiss teacher, author, artist and cartoonist Rodolphe TĂ¶pffer, who was famous in the Netherlands for his Histoire de Monsieur Cryptogame, which was actually the very first cartoon to feature in Dutch newspapers. In Calvinist Holland speech balloon strips were frowned upon well into the 20th Century, but text cartoons were just about acceptable.
Toonder perfected TĂ¶pfferâs format by treating text and illustrations as equal, so the reader needed both to make sense of the story.
Right from the start Tom Poes was translated into various languages: Swedish and Czech were the first, published in 1941, soon followed by French, Spanish and some British titles. The Loch Ness Monster, published in Tom Puss Comics is one example.
Over 45 years Toonder wrote 177 Tom Poes / Olie B. Bommel stories. The newspaper strips became known as the âBommel Saga.â
A sign of its popularity is the Toonderstripkatalogus (âToonder cartoon catalogueâ), meticulously detailing all manifestations of the Tom Poes stories; in newspapers, in weekly magazines, in book form, in translation and in other media, accompanied by a history of Toonder and his creations.
In his study of Toonder and the Bommel Saga, Henk R. Mondria discusses whether Tom Poes can be considered to be âLiteratureâ. He answers in the affirmative. His arguments are that Olie B. Bommel is a rounded character, Toonder is a language virtuoso and the stories always have deeper layers than just the plot line. Furthermore, literary critics wrote polemics about this burning question, which is a sure sign of the literary value of Tom Poes.
Then, in 2008 the publisher De Bezige Bij embarked on a project of re-issuing all Tom Poes stories in a series Marten Toonder: alle verhalen van Olie B. Bommel en Tom Poes, plus commentary, in 60 volumes. The last volume was published in 2018: Als dat maar goed gaat (âWhat could possibly go wrong?â). That settles the discussion once and for all; Tom Poes is well and truly part of the Dutch literary canon!
Marja Kingma, Curator Germanic Collections
References / Further reading
Wim Hazeu, Marten Toonder: biografie (Amsterdam, 2012) On order.
Marten Toonder, Vroeger was de aarde plat: autobiografie. (Amsterdam, 2010) ZA.9.a.5120
Marten Toonder, Alle Verhalen (Amsterdam, 2008-2018). 60 vols. Individual volumes held at various shelfmarks.