George Orwellâs Animal Farm was first published on 17 August 1945 and on 28 August the Russian scholar and critic Gleb Struve wrote to Orwell to say that he found the book âdelightfulâ and would like to translate it for the benefit of Russians, âwho could read the truth about their country only when outside itâ. Replying to this letter on 1 September, Orwell wondered âwhat the procedure is. Are books in Russian published in this country, i.e. from non-official sources?â He told Struve that, at about the same time, he had received a letter from a Pole who wanted to translate the book into Polish. Orwellâs main worry was how to pay his translators, but he said he was âanxious that the book should find its way into other languages. If translations into the Slav languages were made, I shouldnât want any money out of them myself (The Complete Works of George Orwell (CWGO), vol. 17, pp. 274-5).
Cover page of Polish translation: ZwierzeÌšcy folwark ....(London,1947). 012642.pp.100.
The first translation of Animal Farm into a Slavic language â in fact, into any language! â was into Polish. It was made by Teresa Jelenska, the wife of a Polish diplomat, and published at the turn of 1946 and 1947 in London by the League of Poles Abroad.
Teresa Jelenska was also instrumental in putting her sonâs friend, a young Polish-born Ukrainian Ihor Szewczenko in touch with Orwell. Szewczenko, then aged 25, wrote to Orwell in April 1946 immediately after he had read Animal Farm and saw at once, as he put it, âthat a translation of the tale into Ukrainian would be of great value to my countrymenâ (CWGO, vol. 19, p. 72). Szewczenko (who later changed the spelling of his name to SÌevcÌenko, the heading under which his works can be found in the British Libraryâs catalogue), translated Animal Farm while commuting between Munich, where he lived with his wife and mother-in-law, both Soviet-Ukrainian refugees, and QuackenbrĂŒck in the British zone of Germany, where he worked for a Polish newspaper.
A year later, when the translation was ready for publication by the Munich publisher Prometheus, Szewczenko wrote to Orwell again asking him for a preface for the book and Orwell, although he was âfrightfully busyâ, did indeed write the preface to the Ukrainian edition, which remains his most detailed explanation of his motives for writing the âfairy storyâ. He was particularly glad to find out from Szewczenko, who published his translation under the pseudonym of Ivan Cherniatynskyi, that his publishers in Munich were the Soviet Ukrainians, who defended the âacquisitions of the October revolutionâ, but turned against the âcounter-revolutionary Bonapartismâ of Stalin and the Russian nationalistic exploitation of the Ukrainian people. Orwell was âencouraged to learn that that kind of opposition exists in the USSRâ (CWGO, vol. 19, p. 73).
Cover of the Ukrainian translation. Kolhosp tvaryn: kazka. Translated by âIvan Cherniatynskyiâ with an introduction by George Orwell. ([Munich, 1947?]) 12593.f.40.
The first Ukrainian edition was not very lucky. Orwell informed his friend, writer Arthur Koestler on 20 September 1947 (CWGO, vol. 19, pp. 206-7), that âthe American authorities in Munich have seized 1500 copies of it and handed them over to the Soviet repatriation people, but it appears 2000 copies got distributed among the DPs (Displaced Persons) firstâ. In the same letter Orwell told Koestler that he had given Szewczenko his address and added: âI have been saying ever since 1945 that the DPs were a godsent opportunity for breaking down the wall between Russia and the Westâ. Shortly before that, in his review of James Burnhamâs book The Struggle for the World (London, 1947; 8011.ee.32.), he expressed a similar thought even more directly: âone of the most important problems at this moment is to find a way of speaking to the Russian people over the heads of their rulersâ (CWGO, vol. 19, p. 105).
It was precisely the plan to send Animal Farm into the Soviet Union that made Orwell agree to fund the publication of Gleb Struveâs translation into Russian by the DP publisher Possev. Approached by Possev six months before his death, Orwell immediately supported the idea of publishing the translation in a book form (it had already been serialized in the publisherâs weekly magazine of the same name (no. 7-32, 1949) and smuggling it into the USSR, but he still wanted to know for sure who he was dealing with. âI suppose the editors of this paper are bona fide people and also not Whites?â â he asked his recent acquaintance, a German communist Ruth Fischer in a letter of 15 July 1949 (CWGO, vol. 20, p.146). The first part of his question could easily be confirmed, but it was more complicated with the second. As Orwell had feared Possev, unlike the Ukrainian publishers of Animal Farm, were indeed âWhitesâ. They enjoyed Orwellâs satire of the Soviet regime, but could not stomach him satirising the church and religion and the role they played in society. That is why â as it became known much later, in the 1980s â they censored Orwell and cut out from Animal Farm two paragraphs describing the role of Moses, the tame raven, who tells the animals about âSugarcandy Mountain, to which all animals went when they died.â
Title-page of the Russian translation. Skotskii khutor. ([Frankfurt am Main], 1950). 12654.de.12.
This was of course only the beginning. Eventually Animal Farm was translated into at least 70 languages, including Esperanto, but it is worth stressing that the Slavic languages (Polish, Ukrainian, Russian) were among the first. The French publication appeared later than expected, only in October 1947, because, as Orwell wrote to Koestler in January 1946, âThe French publisher, who had signed a contract to translate Animal Farm, has got cold feet and says it is impossible Â«for political reasonsÂ»â (CWGO, vol. 18. p.28) â this no doubt was the result of the 1945 elections in France, when the Communists became the largest party in the French National Assembly. But those whose countries were directly under the Communist rule continued publishing the book abroad â in 1952 Animal Farm came out in Lithuanian and in 1955 in Serbian.
Cover of the Lithuanian translation. GyvuliĆł Ć«kis. FantastinÄ apysaka. (London, 1952). X.950/31145
Masha Karp, editor of The Orwell Society Journal and author of a forthcoming Russian biography of George Orwell
The Complete Works of George Orwell edited by Peter Davison (London, 2000-2002). Vols. 17 (YC.2001.a.13719), 18 (YC.2001.a.16202), 19 (YC.2002.a.23095) and 20 (YC.2002.a.23177)
Masha Karp. âThe Raven Vanishesâ. The Orwell Society Journal. No. 9, December 2016, pp. 16-19
Ksenya Kiebuzinski. âNot Lost in Translation: Orwellâs Animal Farm Among Refugees and Beyond the Iron Curtainâ, The Halcyon: Newsletter of the Thomas Fisher Rare Books Library, no. 59, June 2017.