THE BRITISH LIBRARY

Music blog

2 posts from June 2014

21 June 2014

Music behind barbed wire in World War One

During the First World War many thousands of civilian men were interned as ‘enemy aliens’ on both sides of the conflict.  The story of their detainment is one of forced separation from homes and families, cramped and crowded conditions, isolation from society, and overt hostility from the outside world.   In the UK, internment camps were established to house mostly German, Austrian and Hungarian men, many of whom were married to British women and had been resident in the country for years.  The largest camp was on the Isle of Man, where up to 30,000 men were held, while smaller camps were setup at various locations in London and elsewhere. 

  Ruhleben camp orchestra

In Germany, up to 5,000 men were interned at a racecourse in Ruhleben, near Berlin.  They included many British citizens who had been resident in Germany, or were simply on holiday there, at the outbreak of the war.  In accordance with international treaties (such as the 1906 Geneva Convention), the interned civilians were permitted a certain degree of autonomy to organise their affairs and daily activities.  Over time numerous sporting, cultural, and educational activities took place, many of them organised by societies and committees formed within the camp to promote particular interests and pursuits. 

Interned Musicians at Alexandra Palace

The British Library holds several unique collections of material relating to cultural activities that took place both at Ruhleben and at Alexandra Palace in north London, which was converted in the early stages of the war to accommodate over 3,000 prisoners.  Music represented an important and popular activity in both camps, and regular orchestral concerts were given through the war by the many professional and amateur musicians who were interned there. 

Ruhleben programme 12 Dec 1915

The concerts were not advertised beyond the perimeter fences, but programmes were printed and distributed in the camps, and some of them uniquely survive in the holdings of the British Library.  Among the musicians interned at Ruhleben were the composers Edgar Bainton, Arthur Benjamin, and Benjamin Dale, all of whom composed music for concert performance or to accompany theatrical events in the camp.  In 1916, for example, Bainton composed incidental music to a production of The Tempest, which formed part of a week-long festival to mark Shakespeare's tercentenary. 

Ruhleben Shakespeare Festival

At Alexandra Palace, an orchestra was formed soon after the camp was established in 1915 under the direction of Anton Wüst, who had been employed as an assistant conductor at the Hippodrome Theatre in London up to 1914.  The orchestra, consisting of up to 40 players, would go on to give weekly concerts until the end of the war either in the Palace theatre, which seated up to 2,000 people, or in fine weather on the terrace.  The repertory ranged from Beethoven and Haydn symphonies, to excerpts from Wagner’s operas and waltzes or popular songs from operettas.  Wuest himself composed several songs and waltzes which were performed in the camp. 

Alexandra Palace concert 3 March 1918

On Thursday 26 June, the concert 'A Captive Audience' inspired by the British Library’s collections will be given by the BBC Concert Orchestra at the Watford Colosseum.  It will feature music performed and composed in both of the camps, including Anton Wüst’s Alexandra Palace Ragtime, newly orchestrated from a copy of the piano score held by the Library.  Listen via the BBC iPlayer, either live or up to seven days after the concert.  Related material is also on display in the Library's free exhibition, Enduring War: Grief, Grit and Humour (until 12 October).

  Alexandra Palace Ragtime

06 June 2014

Iso Elinson (1907-1964) - 50th anniversary of Russian-British pianist

Fifty years ago, Iso Elinson died at the age of fifty-six during the interval of a charity concert at King’s College, London.

Born in Mogilev, Russia, Elinson was the youngest of ten children.  After studying the piano with his mother (herself a pupil of Anton Rubinstein) at the age of four Elinson enrolled at the St Petersburg Conservatory where he continued with Felix Blumenfeld (the teacher of Vladimir Horowitz) and took composition classes under Alexander Glazunov.  In 1922 the famous Russian composer wrote a glowing report when Elinson left:

‘This is to certify that Mr Isaac Elinson entered the Conservatory in 1911, having displayed a musical gift of genius. Under my tutorship in the years 1917–1919 he thoroughly studied all the musical literature. He graduated brilliantly in composition in 1920. He possesses both a remarkable and skilful technique in piano playing and a genius for artistic musicality. In the might of his talent and performance he is truly a follower of Franz Lizst.  Therefore I consider his musical education to be complete.'

In 1927 at the age of only twenty, Elinson performed all thirty-two of Beethoven’s piano sonatas in Leningrad, Moscow and Kazan to celebrate the centenary of the composer’s death and in 1929 played the complete Wohltemperierte Klavier in Berlin.  It was in that city that he befriended Albert Einstein who in March 1930 provided a testimonial to serve Elinson as a passport, in which he referred to ‘his God-given artistic gifts and his pure child-like face’.

After his London debut at the Wigmore Hall in 1933 Elinson appeared regularly in Britian often appearing with Henry Wood, John Barbirolli and Thomas Beecham.  He took British citizenship in the mid-1930s and in 1938 made his debut in New York.   

Elinson performed regularly in Britain, often two or three concertos with orchestra in one concert, and in the 1950s and early 1960s gave Chopin recitals at the Royal Festival Hall.  It was at this time that he made a number of LPs for Pye records of Chopin's Etudes and Preludes.  A disc of Beethoven Sonatas was issued posthumously as was one of the Handel and Paganini Variations by Brahms.

It is a little known fact that Elinson made two 78rpm discs during his visit to Berlin in 1929-1930 for German Columbia.  Only issued in Germany at the time, I was delighted to be offered one of these extremely rare discs for the British Library by Elinson's grandson Matthew Brotherton.  The only problem was that the disc was broken in half.  However, with state of the art restoration techniques here at the British Library Conservation Centre, engineer Tom Ruane was able to digitise and preserve the disc.

One side of the disc, Chopin's Mazurka in G sharp minor Op. 33 No. 1 and Etude Op. 25 No.6 can be heard here:

Disc-S2-Mazurka in Gis Moll-Final

  Mazurka and Etude