The Ragged School Shoe-Black Society
The Ragged School Shoe-Black Society was established in 1851. On 31 March five boys were sent out for the first time to work in the streets of London for a fortnight’s trial. By July, 30 boys were on the books.
Front cover of The Ragged School Shoe-Black Society. An account of its origin, operations, and present condition. By the Committee. (London, 1854)
The idea of reviving the obsolete occupation of shoe-black was prompted by the wish to cater for overseas visitors in London for the Great Exhibition who would want to have access to this service as they did at home. The police were consulted, and approved stations were set up to ensure that the boys did not obstruct public footpaths.
Boys wanting to join the Shoe-Black Society had to be recommended by the superintendent of a Ragged Union School and submit a printed form stating their circumstances. After a few days’ practice with the brushes, boys were given a month’s trial. The shoe-blacks maintained the connection to their school and attended as often as possible on weekday evenings and Sundays.
Uniform and equipment were provided by the Society. The shoe-blacks wore a red woollen jersey, a cap with a red band, and a black apron. Two badges were displayed: one read ‘Ragged School Shoe-Black Society’, and the other was the boy’s distinctive letter sewn in glass beads by the girls of the Lisson Street Refuge. Kneeling mats and boxes for resting customers’ feet were made by boys at the Grotto Passage Refuge.
Each morning the shoe-blacks from all parts of London assembled at 7.30 am at the Society’s office off the Strand to pick up their boxes and uniforms. After prayers and a Scripture reading, they went off to their stations before returning in the evening: 4 pm in the winter and 6.30 pm in the summer. The charge for brushing customers’ trousers and cleaning their shoes was one penny. Officials from the Society visited the boys during the day to oversee their conduct and supply blacking.
A daily account of earnings was kept with each boy. Sixpence was returned to the boy and the rest divided – one third to the boy immediately; one third retained by the Society; one third paid into a fund for the boy. Once a boy had ten shillings in the bank, he could draw it out to buy good working clothes, Further withdrawals were allowed at the discretion of the Society. When a boy left, the balance was spent for his benefit by the superintendent of his school, on apprenticeship, an outfit for emigration, or clothing for a job.
The boys brought their own lunch to eat at their stations, but for evening meals a refreshment room was provided, run by a matron who received the profit and bore the risk. She sold bread and butter, eggs, herrings, pies, oranges, pudding, coffee and soup.
Punishments were imposed for misconduct. Fines levied for lateness, absence, and misbehaviour were applied to a sick fund for the boys. Rewards for earning the most money were given in the form of prizes and medals. Entertainments and lectures were provided, with an annual treat at Midsummer.
The Society said it took boys who were ‘ragged, hopeless, and sometimes starving’ and gave them a means of livelihood and an incentive to industrious habits. The occupation of a shoe-black was seen as a stepping stone to better and permanent employment.
Lead Curator, East India Company Records
The Ragged School Shoe-Black Society. An account of its origin, operations, and present condition. By the Committee. (London, 1854).