UK Web Archive blog

Information from the team at the UK Web Archive, the Library's premier resource of archived UK websites

The UK Web Archive, the Library's premier resource of archived UK websites

4 posts categorized "Literature"

17 March 2021

Shakespeare in the UK Web

By Jason Webber, Web Archive Engagement Manager, The British Library

It's Shakespeare week (15-21 March). William Shakespeare is, almost certainly, the most quoted literary figure (in English) and the popularity of his plays and poems endures into the digital age. His work is continuingly being taught, examined, analysed and most of all, quoted on the internet. Often quoted in unlikely places such as 'Now is the winter of our discontent' on the Butterfly Conservation website.


Most Popular?
What are the most popular Shakespeare quotes? Perhaps unsurprisingly 'To be or not to be" has far and away the most mentions in our SHINE service - all .uk websites collected 1996-2012 (JISC dataset obtained from the Internet Archive):

Shakespeare quotes 01

Shakespeare quotes from SHINE

If we take away "to be or not to be" this graph looks even more interesting:

Shakespeare quotes 02

Shakespeare quotes from SHINE

Want to try your own Shakespeare quotes in our SHINE service?

  1. Go to the trends page of SHINE:
  2. Add a word or phrase into the input box, NOTE: phrases should go in quotes e.g. "all that glisters"
  3. To compare multiple words or phrases, separate by a comma e.g. "william shakespeare", "christopher marlowe, "ben johnson"
  4. Click on any point in the graph to see examples of the context the word or phrase was used
  5. Enjoy!

Do let us know your own favourite quotes on Twitter: @UKWebArchive

25 January 2021

Rabbie Burns and the UK Web Archive

By Jason Webber, Web Archive Engagement Manager, British Library

Born on 25 January 1759, Robert ‘Rabbie’ Burns, sometimes known as the ‘National Bard’, the ‘Bard of Ayrshire’ and the ‘Ploughman Poet’, is rightly famous for his poetry in the Scots dialect. Burns’ legacy remains strong into the digital age and his work has been widely collected and can be seen in the UK Web Archive.

'Editing robert burns' website

This fantastic AHRC funded project ‘Editing Robert Burns’ aims to produce a multi-edition volume of his work. If you like a pun you can’t help but smile at ‘Daylight Rabbery: The Story of ‘Antique Smith’s’ Robert Burns Forgeries’.

Cutty Sark website

Did you know that famous Greenwich landmark, and former tea clipper, ‘Cutty Sark’ gets its name from the Robert Burns poem ‘Tam o’shanter’?

But Tam kend what was what fu' brawlie:
There was ae winsome wench and waulie,
That night enlisted in the core,
Lang after ken'd on Carrick shore;
(For mony a beast to dead she shot,
And perish'd mony a bonie boat,
And shook baith meikle corn and bear,
And kept the country-side in fear.)
Her cutty-sark, o' Paisley harn
That while a lassie she had worn,

Burns makes a more direct influence into the 21st century with ‘Rabbie Burns Saves the World: an 8 Bit Game’. Play the game here.

8 bit burns website game

Do you know any online Robert Burns resources? We would love to include any in the UK Web Archive. Nominate any UK website here:

Do also check out our ‘Poetry Zines and Journals’ collection.

Happy Burns Night!

29 March 2019

Collecting Interactive Fiction

Works of interactive fiction are  stories where the reader/player can guide or affect the narrative in some way. This can be through turning to a specific page as in 'Choose Your Own Adventure', or clicking a link or typing text in digital works. 

Archiving Interactive Fiction
Attempts to archive UK-made interactive fiction began with an exploration of the affordances of a couple of different tools. The British Library’s own ACT (Annotation Curation Tool), and Rhizome’s WebRecorder. ACT is a system which interfaces with the Internet Archive’s Heritrix crawl engine to provide large scale captures of the UK Web. Webrecorder instead focusses on much smaller scale, higher fidelity captures which include video, audio and other multimedia content. All types of interactive fiction (parser, hypertext, choice-based and multimodal) were tested with both ACT and Webrecorder in order to determine tools which were best suited to which types of content. It should be noted that this project is experimental and ongoing, and as a result, all assertions and suggestions made here are provisional and will not necessarily affect or influence Library collection policy or the final collection. As yet, Webrecorder files do not form part of standard Library collections.


For most parser-based works (those made with Inform 7), Webrecorder appears to work best. It is generally more time-consuming to obtain captures in Webrecorder than in ACT as each page element has to be clicked manually (or at least, the top level page in each branch must be visited) in order to create a fully replayable record. However, this is not the case with most Inform 7 works. For the vast majority, visiting the title page and pressing space bar was sufficient to capture the entire work. The works are then fully replayable in the capture, with users able to type any valid commands in any order. ACT failed to capture most parser works, but there were some successes. For example, Elizabeth Smyth’s Inform 7 game 1k Cupid was fully replayable in ACT, while Robin Johnson’s custom-made Aunts and Butlers also retained full functionality. Unfortunately, games made with Quest failed to capture with either tool.

Another form which appears to be currently unarchivable are those works which make use of live data such as location information, maps or other online resources. Matt Bryden’s Poetry Map failed to capture in ACT, and in Webrecorder although the poems themselves were retained, the background maps were lost. Similarly, Kate Pullinger’s Breathe was recorded successfully with WebRecorder, but naturally only the default text, rather than the adaptive, location-based information is present. Archiving alternative resources such as blogs describing the works may be necessary for these pieces until another solution is found. However, even where these works don’t capture as intended, running them through ACT may still have benefits. A functional version of J.R. Carpenter’s This Is A Picture of Wind, which makes use of live wind data, could not be captured, but crawling it obtained a sample thumbnail which indicates how the poems display in the live version – something which would not have been possible using Webrecorder alone.

Choice-based works made with Ink generally captured well with ACT, although Isak Grozny’s dripping with the waters of SHEOL required Webrecorder. This could be due to the dynamic menus, the use of javascript, or because Autorun has been enabled on, all of which can prevent ACT from crawling effectively. ChoiceScript games were difficult to capture with either tool for various reasons. Firstly, those which are paywalled could not be captured. Secondly, the manner in which the files are hosted appears to affect capture. When hosted as a folder of individual files rather than as a single compiled html file, the works could only be captured with Webrecorder’s Firefox emulator, and even then, the page crashes frequently. Those which had been compiled appeared to capture equally well with either tool.

Twine works generally capture reasonably well with ACT. ACT is probably the best choice for larger Twines in particular, as capturing a large number of branches quickly becomes extremely time-consuming in Webrecorder. Works which rely on images and video to tell their story, such as Chris Godber’s Glitch, however, retain a greater deal of their functionality if recorded in Webrecorder. As the game is somewhat sprawling, a route was planned through which would give a good idea of the game’s flavour while avoiding excessively long capture times. Webrecorder also contains an emulator of an older version of Firefox which is compatible with older javascript functions and Flash. This allowed for archiving of works which would have otherwise failed to capture, such as Emma Winston’s Cat Simulator 3000 and Daniel Goodbrey’s Icarus Needs.

As alluded to above, using the two tools in tandem is probably the best way to ensure these digital works of fiction are not lost. However, creators are advised to archive their own work too, either by nominating web pages to the UKWA, capturing content with Webrecorder, or saving pages with the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine.

By Lynda Clark, Innovation Placement, The British Library - @notagoth

18 August 2016

Poetry Goes Online: Preserving poetry journals and zines for the Web archive

I have been working on a Special Collection for the UK Web Archive of UK-based online poetry journals and magazines. My own research at Goldsmiths, where I am completing the first year of a PhD, is concerned with contemporary poetic responses to the increasing ubiquity of the internet and networked culture. This project has been a fantastic opportunity to enrich my own understanding of digital poetry publishing in the UK and develop my research paradigm; I also hope my findings answer some questions regarding digital-only collection strategies for the Library’s on-going Non-Print Legal Deposit (NPLD) responsibilities. In this article I want to share some of my discoveries which will be included in the Special Collection.

The Next Generation of Poetry Journals
My research interests grew out of my experience with poetry communities which had emerged out of, and operated entirely within, digital spaces: participants used social media for networking, collaboration and promotion, taking advantage of cheap web hosting and free blog domains to publish zines and chapbooks. For a younger generation of digitally-native poets growing up in an era of cuts to arts funding (and perhaps less sentimental about print culture), the internet provides the easiest and cheapest method to publish, be read and to interact with other poets. It also provides a space for groups often excluded or underrepresented in print publishing. tender is an exceptional example of this latest generation of online journals; published quarterly as a highly-polished downloadable PDF file, it features a curated selection of original art, poetry, prose and interviews made exclusively by female-identified writers and artists.

Fig 1

Making a Break from Print Culture
Unlike print publishing - with its propensities for the risk-averse and the commercial - the effectively free status of online publishing encourages greater formal and thematic experimentalism. For Every Year, for example, is publishing an original piece of prose, poetry or “something else” for every year since 1400 – they have already made it to the year 1821 and show no signs of stopping anytime soon. Other thematically adventurous publications in the collection include Visual Verse, a zine based entirely around ekphrastic writing; and PracCrit, a journal which publishes original poems juxtaposed with essayistic responses from other poets. Many of these publications are - like much online activity - international in outlook, with contributors hailing from around the globe. The lack of a clear geographical home for certain journals opens up a number of problems regarding NPLD scope, which is limited to the preservation of UK publications.

Fig 2
Fig 3

The Changing Digital Landscape
Examining the brief history of online poetry also charts a broader history of internet publishing trends, as the infrastructure of online spaces evolves with each successive technological shift. The simplistic text and image sites of “Web 1.0” have been replaced with increasingly sophisticated interfaces and professional graphic design as internet culture comes of age (Footballpoetry).

In 2005
In 2016

Elsewhere, journals like Conversation Poetry are published via Issuu, a skeuomorphic digital publishing platform which mimics the physical properties of a print publication. Conversely – and perhaps more interestingly - journals such as Proof in the UK and The Claudius App in the US foreground the aesthetics of their own digitality. Through the utilisation of multimedia platforms like Java and Flash, these journals aim to make the experience of reading itself consonant with the interactive, dynamic nature of computational technology.

These too present some of the greatest challenges for the Web Archive moving forward, since even advanced web crawlers have limitations when archiving plugins and streaming media content (although new advances in archiving technology show promise). As part of the broader born-digital genre of e-literature, these new experiments mark a break with traditional “bookbound” forms, and may offer a glimpse of the future of literary arts. Look out for the collection on the Web Archive in the next few months.

By Joe McCarney, PhD Placement Student, Goldsmiths, University of London